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pH levels and Arterial Blood Gases

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Presentation on theme: "pH levels and Arterial Blood Gases"— Presentation transcript:

1 pH levels and Arterial Blood Gases

2 Blood pH Normal levels of pH are 0-14 Below 6- acidic Above 7-alkaline
Use pH paper to determine acidity or alkalinity These pH levels are used for chemicals, body fluids, such as urine, gastric content

3 Acids Substances that when dissolved in water will ionize into positively charged hydrogen ions and negatively charged ions of some other element.

4 Alkali (Bases) Substances that when dissolved in water ionizes into negatively charged hydroxide ions and positively charged ions of metal

5 Neutralization This is the result when an acid and a base are combined to form a salt and a water. Example: heartburn: give antacids and neutralizes the acid into a salt and a water and the heartburn goes away.

6 Arterial Blood Arterial Blood gas testing measures the dissolved O2 and CO2 and pH levels in the arterial blood.

7 Arterial Blood gases The ABG measure the effectiveness of tissue perfusion and when imbalanced several health conditions can occur.

8 pH The pH reflects the hydrogen ions in the circulating blood.
This complex buffering system exists in the respiratory and cardiovascular mechanisms and keeps the systems in balance.

9 Respiratory The lungs (respiratory) compensate for the imbalance within 2 to 3 hours.

10 Metabolic The kidneys (metabolic) compensate for the imbalances within 2 to 3 days.

11 Health problems that will alter ABG results
Asthma Pneumonia Emphysema Hypoxia Sepsis (infection) Shock Anesthesia Drug overdose (Aspirin toxicity)

12 Arterial Blood pH This is a useful indicator to determine acid/base balance within the body. Normal range is 7.35 to 7.45

13 Intracellular- fluid within the cell
Homeostasis Intracellular- fluid within the cell Extracellular-fluid outside the cell

14 Arterial blood gas (ABG)
Arterial samples provide information about the ability of the lungs to regulate acid/base balance through retention or release CO2. Effectiveness of the kidneys maintaining appropriate bicarbonate levels can also be gauged.

15 pH 7.35 to 7.45 CO2- 35-45 (respiratory) HCO3- 24-28 (metabolic)
Application of ABG pH to 7.45 CO (respiratory) HCO (metabolic) O2 saturation- 80 to100

16 Look at pH first pH: Above alkaline Below acid

17 respiratory CO2 above 45-acid Below 35 alkaline

18 metabolic HCO3 above 28- alkaline Below 24 acid

19 Example 24 year old female with drug overdose has following ABG results: pH- 7.5 CO2-40 HCO3- 32 pH elevated, alkaline, HCO3 elevated and alkaline Metabolic alkalosis

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