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Becoming a Successful Business Analyst

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1 Becoming a Successful Business Analyst
Co-sponsored by IT Skills Development Work Group and Project Management Work Group December 15, 2009 Great Logistics Exists Rest rooms Cell phones to mute Thanks to NYS Forum Greg Rebecca Mike And to other members of our orkgroup particularly Donna Aniko Polgar

2 Welcome Goal of IT Skills Development Workgroup (ITSD)
To provide NYS IT Professionals with resources and information that allows them to build their capabilities so that they may take on more advanced roles and tasks in their workplace Through Seminars and Forums Facilitation and Encouragement of Communities of Practice Other Offerings Today’s Session on Business Analysis: What is a Business Analyst? What Role do they Play? How does Business Analysis and Project Management Interact? This is the second forum hosted by the IT Skills Development Work Group, formally the MATRIX, and the Project Management Work Group focused on Business Analysis. The spring event was so successful, using the feed back we received we have pulled together an excellent slate of presenters focused on two specific issues – what are the skills you need to become a business analysis, what role does a business analyst perform and what are the distinctions between a business analyst and a project manager and most importantly how do these two very important actors inter-relate. The purpose of the IT Skills Development Work Group is to bring together forums such as these that fill a specific need for the IT professional. Please keep an eye on the Forum’s calendar for future events like these hosted by the ITSD work group.

3 Agenda Welcome And Introductions
- James Nicol, Co-chair IT Skills Development Work Group What Makes A Successful Analyst? - Caryn Quinn, Technodyne The Role Of The Business Analyst - Paul Franz And Angie Musa, NYSTEC Break Business Analyst And Project Management Roles: How They Interact And Interrelate, - Kathleen Barret, IIBA President Panel Discussion Final Thoughts – James Nicol Adjourn

4 What makes a successful Analyst.
Caryn Quinn – TechnoDyne

5 Business Analysts

6 What makes a successful Business Analyst?
NYS Forum IT Skills Development and Project Management Workgroups 15th December 2009 Business Analysts

7 What is a Business Analyst (BA) ? Why are BAs needed ?
AGENDA Introduction What is a Business Analyst (BA) ? Why are BAs needed ? What do BAs do ? How does one become a successful Business Analyst ? Tools Leverage of the BABOK Tailoring the tools for success Use Case / Model Business Analysts

8 Director Technology, Technodyne
INTRODUCTION Caryn Quinn Director Technology, Technodyne 20 years experience aligning technology to deliver business value Previously Sr. Manager, IBM; VP Technology, Sony; VP Strategic Outsourcing, Velocity Primary focus on: Helping clients clarify business needs Identifying creative solutions to address business needs Developing Solution Blueprints Managing Organizational and Process change Monitoring and measuring project success Business Analysts

The BA role is multi-functional and highly varied The shape of the BA role depends upon project objectives, client preferences and team’s capabilities Two commonly encountered models: Product Scope Requirements Agile Initiate Design SCRUM Plan RAD Build PRINCE2 Monitor & Control Test SIX Sigma Rational Implement Add animation to phase overlays of methods Release Etc. Etc. Close PMI Project Management Process Waterfall Development Business Analysts

10 Poor or wrong requirements*
WHY ARE BAs NEEDED Regardless of SDLC model, poor requirements management is consistently in the top 3 reasons for Project Failure Lack of handover (people change management) Poor strategic alignment Lack of sponsor involvement Poor planning Poor or wrong requirements* Poorly defined objectives/scope Ineffective communication Long time to delivery Team skills (esp. interpersonal skills) Lack of formal PM processes Poor risk management Business Analysts help manage many of these project areas, most notably Requirements Analysis and Management Business Analysts

11 Develop Stakeholder relationships
WHAT DO BAs DO Develop Stakeholder relationships Work with Stakeholders to elicit and define requirements Manage Requirements Assess & Validate Solutions Plan Analyze Document Verify / Test Communicate Various techniques used to elicit requirements, for example:  Requirements Workshop  Interview  Survey  Prototyping  Focus Group Requirements Communication Purpose:  Communicate the outcome  Present & communicate requirements to all stakeholders & implementers of the project  Bring the group to consensus & gets approval Value:  Presents the requirements in a format & structure that is appropriate for its intended audience  Brings the various stakeholders to a common understanding  Formalizes agreement Involved in every stage of a successful project’s life cycle Business Analysts

A successful Business Analyst builds a toolbox of capabilities TOOLS Business Process Analysis (Code) Profiler GUI designer Simulator/Testing Debugger Prototyper METHDOLOGY Agile: XP, SCRUM Iterative: RUP, Dynamic System Dev Model Waterfall: original SDLC SKILLS Business skills / knowledge Domain (functional) skills Management & Leadership skills Technology skills On-the-job training Certificate programs College courses EDUCATION Business Analysts

The Business Analysis Body of Knowledge or BABOK … … captures the sum of knowledge within the profession of Business Analysis … reflects currently accepted practices … provides a framework with associated activities, tasks and skills But is NOT a “how to do” business analysis instruction manual NOR a methodology Business Analysts

Assessing Project Objectives Business Environment Client Preferences Team Capabilities Cultural Nuances Historical Experience (success, failures) Customizing available tools to meet the needs of the particular project Maintaining flexibility Use the tools to accelerate the process, improve efficiency, and quality Business Analysts

STATED OBJECTIVE: Client wishes to replace 30 year old system due to inadequacies BUSINESS NEED: An intuitive, easy-to-use application with business rules-driven functionality supported by workflow and business analytics VALUE: Greater automation and improved efficiencies Enhanced compliance Reduced error rate and cost Simplified ability to identify and react to (+ / -) patterns Improved client / user satisfaction Business Analysts

The Solution Blueprint :an integrated set of elements that define the project Process Flow Approved Project Request Functional Framework Requirements Definition illustrative Technical Architecture Project Team RICE Analysis Add animation Project Timeline Implementation Cost Model Business Analysts

illustrative The Functional Framework is a tool that defines the major components of functionality of the desired solution and their relationship to each other. This model is used to clarify, communicate, and confirm the solution with the client / business users. The model serves as the basis for Technical Architecture and Process Flows. OWNERSHIP: Business Analyst Business Analysts

The Technical Architecture brings the Functional Framework from a logical, business perspective to a physical, technical perspective. illustrative The Technical Architecture along with the Process Flows serves as the basis for the Requirements Document. OWNERSHIP: Business Analyst Business Analysts

Process illustrative Activities Process Flows leverage the Functional Framework which shows the what needs to be done to articulate how the business does it. The Process Flows along with the Technical Architecture serves as the basis for the Requirements Document. OWNERSHIP: Business Analyst Business Analysts

Requirements Definition RICE Analysis illustrative illustrative Requirements Definition and RICE (Reports, Interfaces, Conversions, Extensions) define the high-level details of what needs to be created. These documents, together, will help articulate resource needs and the timeline for development of the solution. OWNERSHIP: Business Analyst, (Programmer) Business Analysts

21 Implementation Cost Model
SCENARIO / USE CASE – THE BUSINESS ANALYST’S ROLE Project Timeline Implementation Cost Model illustrative illustrative The culmination of this effort is the development of a Project Timeline and Project Implementation Cost Model. Together, these identify the Level of Effort (LoE) and Cost to create and deploy the solution to the user base. OWNERSHIP: Business Analyst, Project Manager Business Analysts

22 The Business Analyst’s role is a multi-functional, highly varied role
CONCLUSION The Business Analyst’s role is a multi-functional, highly varied role Various formal and informal learning opportunities exist to develop the skills required for this role The model of this role on any project will depend on the project objectives, client preference, and team’s capabilities A set of industry tools exist to assist the Business Analyst; these are commonly known as BABOK – Business Analyst Body of Knowledge Business Analysts

23 Director Technology, Technodyne
Caryn Quinn Director Technology, Technodyne Business Analysts

24 Appendix Business Analysts

25 WHAT IS A REQUIREMENT A requirement is a description of a stakeholder need Specifically, requirements are: A condition or capability needed by a stakeholder to solve a problem or achieve an objective (2) A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a solution or solution component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed documents\ (3) A documented representation of a condition or capability as in (1) or (2) Business Analysts

The IT Project Request Form is a tool that facilitates alignment at project onset This form defines: Project objectives Anticipated business benefits Probable risks and mitigation steps Timeline Roles and Responsibilities Costs It is supported by the Project Organization Chart OWNERSHIP: Project Manager illustrative Business Analysts

27 The role of the Business Analyst.
Paul Franz and Angie Musa NYSTEC

28 Role of the Business Analyst
Presented by: Angie Musa, CBAP® and Paul Franz, CBAP® December 15, 2009

29 Presentation Outline What is Business Analysis?
Who is the Business Analyst? What skills and knowledge does a BA need? Tools and Techniques BABOK ® KAs and the PM Lifecycle Summary

30 What is Business Analysis?

31 Who is the Business Analyst?
any person who performs business analysis activities – regardless of their job title or organizational role

32 Role of a BA The Bridge Between Stakeholders Liaison Enabler
Change Agent Cartoon used by permission from Modern Analyst Media LLC. For more, visit


34 NYS Civil Service Position Description
Job Duties NYS Civil Service Position Description Work as a liaison between stakeholders in order to elicit, analyze, communicate, and validate requirements for changes to business processes, policies, and information systems

35 Assigning the Business Analyst
Cartoon used by permission from Modern Analyst Media LLC. For more, visit

36 What Skills Does a BA Need?
Cartoon used by permission from Modern Analyst Media LLC. For more, visit 36

37 Soft skills Communication Interpersonal Analytic skills Written Oral
Presentation Interpersonal Relationships Facilitation Negotiation Trustworthiness Analytic skills Creativity Logical thinking Decision making

38 Business Knowledge Organization Informal lines of communication Competitive landscape Industry specific trends Technical Knowledge Existing relations with key technical stakeholders Methodologies, systems, standards Technology concepts, trends The depth of business and technical knowledge varies and finding the right balance is important

39 Knowledge Areas Business Analysis Planning and Monitoring Elicitation
Requirements Management and Communication Enterprise Analysis Requirements Analysis Solution Assessment and Validation Underlying Competencies

40 Tools and Techniques Techniques are the way a practitioner performs a business analysis tasks Techniques can also describe a specific form that the output of a business analysis task may take BABOK® Guide identifies 49 techniques BA does not need to be an expert in all techniques Should understand commonly used techniques and how to best apply them

41 Sample Tools and Techniques
Elicitation Observation Brainstorming Focus Groups Survey/Questionnaire Interviews Requirements Workshops Analysis Business Rules Analysis Decision Analysis Document Analysis Interface Analysis Functional Decomposition

42 Sample Tools and Techniques
Modeling Scope Models Process Models Data Models Technical Models Validation Criteria Definition Metrics and Key Performance Indicators Structured Walkthrough

43 BA Activities and the Project Management Lifecycle
Cited from the BABOK® Guide v 2







50 Summary Role of the successful BA? Liaison among stakeholders
Enables the organization to achieve goals Identifies and supports transformational change Necessary knowledge, skills and experience Understanding of how to best apply commonly used tools and techniques

51 Thank You! Paul Franz, CBAP ® Angie Musa, CBAP ®

52 Business Analyst and Project Management roles: how they interact and interrelate
Kathleen Barret President International Institute of Business Analysis

53 The Project Manager / Business Analyst Partnership
December 15, 2009 Kathleen Barret is the first and current President of the International Institute of Business Analysis, a professional association for Business Analysts. She is here today to share her perspective on the history and future direction of the business analysis profession.

54 Learning Objectives Gain a better understanding of the roles of the PM and BA. The strengths of each role – measures of success & critical success factors How the roles complement one another Discuss best practices and challenges with the PM/BA partnership

55 In the Beginning... There was chaos...
Companies needed something to help them manage the work they were doing Some industries had already realized there was an important role to support their needs – PM So the role of PM was adopted by a number of org But it took time PMI has been around since 1969, yet the importance of treating a piece of work as a project is still no universal

56 A lot of work was being done... But it was not always productive
In the Beginning... A lot of work was being done... But it was not always productive

57 “Typical” Project Life Cycle
A Little Later On… Organizations invested in Project Management practices Plan Build Test Implement “Typical” Project Life Cycle

58 Project Management Practices
Planning Skills Project Team Management Issue & Risk Management Cost Control Stakeholder Management Contingency Planning Decision Analysis Excellent Planning Skills Determines the SDLC to be used Plans resource requirements Develops the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Develops the schedule Determines financial requirements Project Team Management Manages the project team throughout the project life cycle Resolves conflicts Builds the ‘winning team’ dynamics Presentation Skills & Status Reporting Ability to present to various levels of the organization – from executive level down. Stakeholder Management Manages the expectations of the stakeholders Decision Analysis Leads Decision Analysis process within the project Ensures decisions are agreed upon, and properly documented Issues & Risk Management Ensures risks and issues are actively managed Defines escalation process, to ensure appropriate visibility Contingency Planning Planning for ‘what to do when things don’t go they way you want’ Pro-active mitigation Cost Control Forecasting resource and non-resource $$ Managing the working plan $$

59 But something was still missing
Plan Build Test Implement The Solution did not solve the problem

60 But something was still missing
The Missing PIECES! Plan Build Test Implement The Big Picture Definition of need

61 But something was still missing
The Missing PIECES! Plan Build Test Implement Enter the Business Analyst... The Big Picture Definition of need

62 The Picture is Complete
Describe Define Plan Build Test Implement Business Analysis Project Management

63 + = Success PM / BA Knowledge Areas BA Knowledge Areas
PM Knowledge Areas Project Integration Management Project Scope Management Project Time Management Project Cost Management Project Quality Management Project Human Resources Mngmt Project Communications Management Project Risk Management Project Procurement Mngmt BA Knowledge Areas Enterprise Analysis Business Analysis Planning & Monitoring Requirements Management & Communications Elicitation Requirements Analysis Solutions Assessment & Validation + = Success

64 Business Analysis Practices
Critical Thinking Investigative Skills Stakeholder Perspective Modeling Communications skills Facilitation and Negotiation Influence without authority Excellent verbal & written communication Ability to listen, ask probing questions Document requirements in clear, concise language that all stakeholders can understand Structured Group Facilitation Ability to manage large groups of stakeholders with varying needs & priorities Gain consensus on requirements Critical Thinking Asking the ‘why’ questions Ensuring that the appropriate level of detail has been gathered Differentiating between high level and detail requirements Modeling “A picture is worth a thousand words” - Use of various modeling techniques to clarify requirements Influencing without Authority Manage a cross-functional team of stakeholders (from both the business and technology groups) throughout the requirements phase Manage the team dynamics, influence change, and bring about consensus. Investigative Skills There is a “Sherlock Holmes” lurking in every BA The pieces needed to solve the ‘business puzzle’ are rarely in one place, and neatly presented to the BA The Stakeholder View Once the requirements are signed off, the BA becomes the project conscience Ensuring that the delivered product meets the business requirements Helping the technical team to understand the business perspective Working with both the business stakeholders and the technical team, if design trade-offs are necessary.

65 Two Roles – One Goal The person accountable for delivering a project
The person insuring the delivery of the right solution Project Manager Business Analyst

66 Key Accountabilities Project Manager Business Analyst PLAN MANAGE
Project Approach, Process & Deliverables PLAN Requirements Approach, Process & Deliverables Stakeholder Expectation Issues & Risks Project team MANAGE Stakeholder Expectation Issues/Risks Requirements team Project Scope Project Schedule Project Cost Product Scope Requirements Schedule Requirements Change CONTROL Often org assume that a BA will grow up to be a PM That can be understandable - what they do looks the same Plan Manage Control Deliver But it is what they deliver and how they deliver that varies significantly DELIVER Project A business solution

67 Measures of Success - PM
Project delivered: On Time Within Budget Within the agreed-to scope Time Project Scope Cost Individually and as a team Within Scope includes accepted changes

68 Measures of Success - BA
d: Approved requirements Functionality & operability In the context of the business’ mission & strategy SCOPE USABILITY BUSINESS VALUE REQUIREMENTS Individually and as a team Within Scope includes accepted changes

69 An Analogy Project Manager Business Analyst

70 Working together for Success
Leverage each other’s strengths Recognize the ‘healthy tension’ Clearly communicate the partnership To the team To the stakeholders Fundamentally, the PM manages project resources (people, money) and the BA manages the business stakeholders. The BA reports to the PM on his or her progress on the tasks in the work breakdown structure (WBS) in relation to requirements. Usually at the beginning of the project the PM and BA work very closely together and often work on the same tasks. Later as the project gets going, they each focus on their particular responsibilities and talk frequently to share their progress. Excellent PMs and BAs will work hand-in-hand to make the most of each other’s strengths. It is the healthy tension between the PM and the BA—the PM pushing to move forward and the BA cautiously wanting to gather just one more detail before going forward—that makes the combination so successful. They are inter-dependent because both the product and project goals need to be met. At times, they can be in conflict. At the beginning of the project there are areas of overlapping responsibilities such as project scope definition, development of the project statement of purpose, project objectives and identification of business risks. A strong PM will utilize the analysis skills of the BA to make sure that the scope is feasible and well defined. As requirements are gathered, analyzed and documented by the BA, the PM is closely involved, reviewing the requirements and adjusting the plan as necessary. The PM also reviews the decisions made when the BA and technical architect design the solution. Typically the PM reviews all project deliverables at a high level looking for project adjustments and issues. The BA reviews all project deliverables that are related to requirements, solution design and testing; looking in detail to make sure that the business needs are being addressed. During the project both the BA and the PM will maintain a relationship with their “business partners”. The BA is the advocate for the business area and the PM will report project status and work to resolve issues. Both roles also have an ongoing dialogue with the technical team members: the BA working with the technical architects to design a solution, the PM watching the progress of the team and adjusting the plan as decisions are made. Ensure that you clearly communicate what role the PM and BA are playing. Many a partnership (and marriage) have failed due to a lack of clear communication. Keep the communication open between the PM and BA. You are each other’s best advocate!!!

71 For More Information About IIBA – Kathleen Barret
About Keane – David Nagy

72 Concluding Thoughts

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