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Lecture Notes: The Stage is Set for the Guns of August

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1 Lecture Notes: The Stage is Set for the Guns of August
By the early 1900’s, there were many efforts at fostering peace in Europe and ending war. A First modern Olympic Games in Athens B. Alfred Nobel: Set up the annual Nobel Peace Prize

2 Continued…. C. Women’s organizations promote pacifism - the opposition to war D. Governments back peace efforts: 1899 first universal peace conference – set up the Hague Tribunal (World Court to settle disputes between nations)

3 As much effort as there was at fostering peace, the seeds (causes) of WWI were planted in the years preceding 1914. They Included: A. Nationalism Germany – Proud of military power & industrial leadership France – bitter about defeat in Franco-Prussian war and German occupation of Alsace and Lorraine; wanted revenge

4 Continued… Russia – Supported pan-Slavism (the idea that all Slavic peoples share a common nationality) and Serbia Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire - threatened by rising nationalism in their empires B. Imperialism: Competition for colonies brings nations (example – France and Germany) to the brink of war

5 C. Militarism and the arms race
Due to the battle for colonies, nations adopted a policy of militarism Nations expand their armies and navies Increased suspicions and made war more likely Readiness for war dominates national policy in many countries and governments turn to military leaders.

6 D. Alliances Distrust led great powers to sign treaties pledging to defend one another The balance of power is upset when Otto Von Bismarck creates the German Empire and this leads to a string of entangling alliances. Triple Alliance: Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary Triple Entente: Britain, France, and Russia

7 Assassination in Sarajevo (capital of Bosnia; home of many Serbs)
Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary announces a visit to Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 Serbians are outraged 1. View Austrians as foreign oppressors 2. June 28 is an important date in Serbian History a. June 28, 1389 – Serbia conquered by Ottoman Empire b. June 28, 1912 – Serbia freed itself

8 Continued… Members of the Black Hand (Serbian terrorist group) vowed to take action Archduke Ferdinand and wife Sophie are assassinated by Gavrilo Princip Austria-Hungary is convinced that the Serbian government is behind the assassination

9 Conflict spreads quickly
Austria-Hungary sent Serbia an ultimatum-must end all anti-Austrian protest and punish any Serbian official involved in the assassination Serbia agrees to most of the demands July 28, Austria declares war on Serbia 1. Sets off a chain of alliances – Germany backed Austria, Serbia sought help from Russia

10 2. Russia’s Czar Nicholas II asked the Austrian Emperor William II to soften his demands; Austria refuses; Russia mobilizes for war 3. Germany declares war on Russia 4. Russia turns to France; Germany demands France stay out; France refuses and Germany declares war on France 5. August 3, 1914: Germany invades (neutral) Belgium to get to France => outraged, Britain declares war on Germany! In a flash, the whole continent was at war!!!!!

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