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Matter: Properties & Changes

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Presentation on theme: "Matter: Properties & Changes"— Presentation transcript:

1 Matter: Properties & Changes
Chapter 2 notes

2 (2.1) Physical Properties of Matter
can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the sample Examples: color, phase, melting or boiling point, density, hardness, odor, taste

3 States of Matter Solid (s) - definite volume and shape
Liquid (l) - definite volume, but not shape Gas (g) - no definite volume or shape Plasma - highly ionized gas (s) (l) (g)

4 sToP & tHinK Which state or states of matter take(s) the shape of its container? Which state or states of matter can change in volume (without adding or subtracting from the sample)?

5 Physical Changes Physical changes alter a substance without changing its composition

6 sToP & tHinK Which of the following are physical properties?
liquid at room temperature reacts with metals to form H2 gas acids and bases combine to form water and a ‘salt’ boils at 145 degrees Celsius

7 (2.2) Mixtures… Mixture - a combination of two or more pure substances, in which each substance retains its individual chemical properties Heterogeneous mixture - does not blend smoothly, individual substances are distinct Homogeneous mixture - solution; has a constant composition throughout

8 sToP & tHinK Heterogenous or Homogeneous? (1) (2)

9 Separating Mixtures Filtration - porous barrier separates solid from liquid Distillation - liquids separated by differences in boiling point Crystallization - forms pure solids from dissolved substances Chromatography - separation based on ability to travel or be drawn across a material

10 filtration

11 distillation

12 crystallization

13 chromatography

14 sToP & tHinK What separation technique is shown in the following pictures? B A

15 (2.3) Elements & Compounds
Elements - pure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances on the Periodic Table! Compounds - two or more elements bonded together that can be broken down

16 sToP & tHinK In your own words, what is the difference between an element and a compound? Classify the following as being elements or compounds Sodium Sodium chloride Oxygen Carbon dioxide Copper

17 (2.4) Chemical Properties
the ability of a substance to undergo chemical change Examples: “reacts with oxygen to form rust”, “forms a deep blue solution when in contact with ammonia”

18 Chemical Changes Chemical changes alter the composition so that a new substance forms Evidence of chemical change: formation of a gas or solid (precipitate), smoke, fire, an odor, temperature change, color change Law of Conservation of Mass: composition changes, but mass doesn’t

19 sToP & tHinK Substance A is a yellow liquid and substance B is a blue liquid. The two are mixed and form a green liquid and a white solid. What evidence suggests a chemical change occurred? What other things could you look for to determine if there was a chemical change?

20 sToP & tHinK - which shows physical change and which shows chemical change?
link to change animation #1 link to change animation #2

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