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World War II: Aftermath

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1 World War II: Aftermath
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2 Japan U.S. worked to rebuild Japan after the war.
Under MacArthur’s leadership, Japan adopted a new constitution and a free market system. The constitution protected basic freedoms and granted woman suffrage. Occupied for 7 years, during which 1,100 Japanese were tried for war crimes and 7 were executed (including Tojo). Ch 14 Sec Ch 14 Sec

3 Germany At Yalta, the Big 3 decided Germany should be divided into 4 zones of occupation. France, Britain and U.S. combined theirs into West Germany. USSR kept theirs as East Germany (until 1990).

4 “I was only following orders.”
Nuremberg Trials Nazi leaders were placed on trial for crimes against humanity. Many were convicted and executed as a result of their involvement in the Holocaust. Link 50:00 Netflix Nuremberg: Tyranny on Trial 1995NR50 minutes Held in a courtroom in Germany as the world watched in horror, the Nuremberg Trials revealed the full scope of the Nazis' atrocities during World War II and ended in the execution of many of the party's cruelest leaders -- including Rudolph Hess and Hermann Goering. This A&E program follows the historic procedures from beginning to end, talking to the men who prosecuted the case and defined the concept of "crimes against humanity." “I was only following orders.” Ch 14 Sec Ch 14 Sec

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7 United Nations Allies in WWII agreed to form an international group to establish and maintain peace. General Assembly Security Council From UN website The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights. The UN has 4 main purposes To keep peace throughout the world; To develop friendly relations among nations; To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms; To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals. The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers. States first established international organizations to cooperate on specific matters. The International Telecommunication Union was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, and the Universal Postal Union was established in Both are now United Nations specialized agencies. In 1899, the International Peace Conference was held in The Hague to elaborate instruments for settling crises peacefully, preventing wars and codifying rules of warfare. It adopted the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes and established the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which began work in The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in similar circumstances during the first World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles "to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security." The International Labour Organization was also created under the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League. The League of Nations ceased its activities after failing to prevent the Second World War. In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States. The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year. Ch 14 Sec Ch 14 Sec

8 Rebuilding and Containment
Truman Doctrine Containment of communism $400 million to Greece and Turkey Link 2:31 Marshall Plan Billions to rebuild Western Europe Link 1:40 Truman Doctrine The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. Link youtube Civil War in Greece. Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid. Marshall Plan “European Recovery Program.” The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected]. Secretary of State, George Marshall Ch 14 Sec Ch 14 Sec

9 THE MARSHALL PLAN – America’s idea to Rebuild Germany
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10 Put Germany back together
Rebuild towns, roads, cities, railroads Send food, clothing, money to rebuild Germany Soviets see this as a threat “They are rebuilding the Nazi’s homeland!” Ch 14 Sec 10

11 Post-War Germany The recently independent United States Air Force and the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force flew over 200,000 flights in one year, providing up to 4700 tons of daily necessities such as fuel and food to the Berliners.[3] Alongside US and British personnel, the airlift involved aircrews from the Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force, Royal New Zealand Air Force, and South African Air Force[4]:338. MEAGER BEGINNINGS However, British Commander Sir Brian Robertson offered an alternative: supply the city by air. A daunting task. Supplying the Occupation forces of 2,2679 was easy, but the entire population? The only aircraft the Americans had available for the task were 5 year old Douglas C-47 Skytrains, which would only hold 3.5 tons each. After some consultation, the decision was made: it was worth a try. Earlier in April, US Forces airlifted in supplies to replace the ones being delayed by the Soviets. This was what became known as the "Little Lift". West Berlin had two airports, Tempelhof, which was Berlin's main airport and located in the American Sector, and Gatow, in the British Sector. Supplies could be airlifted in by C-47 and there was nothing the Soviet Union could do about because, in 1945, someone had foresight. On November 30, 1945, it was agreed, in writing, that there would be three 20-mile wide air corridors providing access to the city. These were unarguable. When the blockade began, the Soviets rejoiced, because they believed the Western powers had only one option, to leave Berlin. But they underestimated the West airlift supplies. Gen. Clay called upon General Curtis E. LeMay, commander of USAFE and asked him if he could haul supplies to Berlin. LeMay responded, "We can haul anything". Two days later Gen. LeMay called upon Brig. Gen. Joseph Smith, Commander of the Wiesbaden Military Post, and appointed him Task Force Commander of an airlift operation estimated to last a few weeks. The only US aircraft initially available were 102 C-47's and 2 C-54 Skymasters. On June 26, the first C-47's landed at Tempelhof Airfield, foreshadowing the great operation that was to come. Smith dubbed the mission "Operation Vittles", because he said "We're haulin' grub." The British called their part "Operation Plane Fare". It was determined that the city's daily food ration would be 646 tons of flour and wheat; 125 tons of cereal; 64 tons of fat; 109 tons of meat and fish; 180 tons of dehydrated potatoes; 180 tons of sugar; 11 tons of coffee; 19 tons of powdered milk; 5 tons of whole milk for children; 3 tons of fresh yeast for baking; 144 tons of dehydrated vegetables; 38 tons of salt; and 10 tons of cheese. In total, 1,534 tons were needed daily to keep the over 2 million people alive. That's not including other necessities, like coal and fuel. In fact, the largest quantity of anything required was coal. It wasn't needed to heat homes as much as it was necessary for industry. In addition, there was limited electricity, because the city's power plant was located in the Soviet sector, so that was cut off, too. It was determined that in total supplies, 3,475 tons would be needed daily. A C-47 can haul 3.5 tons. In order to supply the people of Berliners, C-47's would have to make 1000 flights each day. Impossible. Initially, Gen. Clay determined that, with the limited number of airplanes available to him, he could haul about 300 tons of supplies a day, the British effort, was estimated to be capable of 750 tons a day. This leaves a 2,425-ton deficit daily. Realizing that this kind of tonnage could not be achieved using C-47's, Gen. Clay and Gen. LeMay made requests for more C-54's, for they could carry over three times more cargo than C-47's. On June 27, an additional 52 Skymasters were ordered to Berlin. On June 28, President Truman made a statement that abandoning Berlin was out of the question. He then ordered US B-29 Superfortresses to be stationed at British airfields to show the Soviets that the Western powers were not taking this lightly. We would not abandon these people! By July 1, C-54's were slowly taking over airlift flights, and they were operating 24 hours a day. Rhein-Main Air Base in Frankfort was made exclusive C-54 base, and Wiesbaden was a mix of C-54's and C-47's. To accommodate these two different aircraft, General smith established a block system, giving the bigger, faster C-54's priority. They were also given radio codes to identify each type and the direction it was going. C-47's going East to Berlin were called "Easy", returning C-47's traveling West, were called "Willie". C-54's had the names 'Big Easy' and "Big Willie". Aircraft were also given a spacing of three minutes apart. Ch 14 Sec Ch 14 Sec

12 Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)
Stalin tries to force the allies out of Berlin Cuts off RR and Highways to the Western Sector The airlift lasted more than a year Ultimately the soviets ended the blockade Link 10:13 Link youtube Ch 14 Sec Ch 14 Sec

13 "Ich bin ein Berliner" ("I am a Berliner") is a quotation from a June 26, 1963, speech by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in West Berlin. He was underlining the support of the United States for West Germany 22 months after the Soviet-supported East Germany erected the Berlin Wall as a barrier to prevent movement between East and West. The message was aimed as much at the Soviets as it was at Berliners, and was a clear statement of U.S. policy in the wake of the construction of the Berlin Wall. Another notable (and defiant) phrase in the speech was also spoken in German, "Lass' sie nach Berlin kommen" ("Let them come to Berlin")--addressed at those who claimed "we can work with the Communists", a remark which Nikita Khrushchev scoffed at only days later. The speech is considered one of Kennedy's best, both a notable moment of the Cold War and a high point of the New Frontier. It was a great morale boost for West Berliners, who lived in an exclave deep inside East Germany and feared a possible East German occupation. Speaking from a platform erected on the steps of Rathaus Schöneberg for an audience of 450,000, Kennedy said, Two thousand years ago the proudest boast was civis Romanus sum ["I am a Roman citizen"]. Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is "Ich bin ein Berliner!"... All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words "Ich bin ein Berliner!" Kennedy used the phrase twice in his speech, ending with it, and pronouncing the sentence with his Boston accent, reading from his note "ish bin ein Bearleener", which he had written out in English phonetics. Link youtube Link 4:42 Ch 14 Sec Ch 14 Sec

14 Stalin didn’t trust the Western Allies and wanted a buffer zone in Eastern Europe.
U.S. joined NATO (a military defense pact among democratic nations) in 1949. Allies divided Nato member nations 2012 Albania Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Rep Denmark Estonia France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Turkey United Kingdom United States The first NATO Secretary General, Lord Ismay, stated in 1949 that the organization's goal was "to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down."[4] Ch 14 Sec Ch 14 Sec

15 Allies divided In response, the Soviets formed their own military alliance-the Warsaw Pact-in 1955. Soviet mutual defense agreement between the Soviets and their satellite nations. But the Warsaw Pact was actually used against the satellite nations to keep them in line. Wikipedia The Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance (1955–1991), or more commonly referred to as the Warsaw Pact, was a mutual defense treaty between eight communist states of Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War. The founding treaty was established under the initiative of the Soviet Union and signed on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw. The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon), the regional economic organisation for the communist states of Eastern Europe. The Warsaw Pact was a Soviet military response to the integration of West Germany[1] into NATO in 1955, per the Paris Pacts of 1954.[2][3][4] Ch 14 Sec Ch 14 Sec


17 Nato countries 2012 Ch 14 Sec Ch 14 Sec


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