Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 1 Discovering Psychology

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Discovering Psychology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Discovering Psychology

2 Psychology Systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes Behaviors refer to observable actions or responses in both humans and animals Mental processes refer to a wide range of complex mental processes, such as thinking, imagining, studying, and dreaming

3 4 Goals of Psychology Describe different ways organisms behave Explain the causes of behavior Predict how organisms will behave Control an organism’s behavior

4 “Psychology has a long past…..but only a short history!!!!”

5 How Did Psychology Begin?
Wilhelm Wundt Father of psychology Established the 1st psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany Structuralism Study of the most basic elements primarily sensations & perceptions that make up our conscious mental experiences Emphasis on the STRUCTURE of consciousness (awareness) Introspection Method of exploring conscious mental processes by asking subjects to look inward and report their sensations & perceptions

6 Functionalism Study of the FUNCTIONS rather than the structures of consciousness Interested in how our minds adapt to changing environments William James Viewed mental activities as having developed through ages of evolution because of their adaptive functions

7 Behaviorism Emphasized the objective, scientific analysis of observable behaviors John B. Watson Rejected introspection as a psychological technique because its results could not be scientifically verified by other psychologists

8 Women in Psychology Mary Calkins Although she completed all of the requirements for a Ph.D., she was denied a doctorate by the Harvard administration because she was a woman Margaret Washburn 1st woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology (1908) Today, women earn more Ph.D.s in psychology than men, however, in 1991 there were more male full-time psychologists than women

9 Minorities in Psychology
See page 24 First African-American woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology (1934) Between 1920 and 1966, only 8 Ph.D.s were awarded to Black students, compared to 3,767 doctorates to Whites From 1892 to 1990, the cumulative membership of the APA was 128,000; 700 African American, 700 Latino, and 70 Native American

10 Careers in Psychology Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist A psychologist is someone who has completed 4 or 5 years of postgraduate education and has obtained a Ph.D. in psychology Some states permit individuals with master’s degrees to call themselves psychologists A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (M.D.) who has spent several years in clinical training, which includes diagnosing possible physical and neurological causes of abnormal behaviors

11 Careers in Psychology Many Career Settings
55% of psychologists work as clinical psychologists in one of the following settings: Source: Pie graph data from “Psychological Science Around the World,” by M. R. Rosenzweig, 1992, American Psychologist, 47,

12 Careers in Psychology (cont.)
private practice or therapy setting a mental health center psychiatric, drug, or rehabilitation ward of a hospital private office 27% work in academic settings of colleges & universities

13 Areas of Specialization
Social & Personality Social psychology involves the study of social interactions, stereotypes, prejudices, attitudes, conformity, group behaviors, and aggression Personality psychology involves the study of personality development, personality change, assessment, and abnormal behaviors Developmental Examines moral, social, emotional, and cognitive development throughout a person’s life span Experimental Includes areas of sensation, perception, learning, human performance, motivation, and emotion Biological Involves research on the physical & chemical changes that occur during stress, learning, and emotions

14 Areas of Specialization
Cognitive Involves how we process, store, and retrieve information and how cognitive processes influence our behaviors Psychometrics Focuses on the measurement of people’s abilities, skills, intelligence, personality, and abnormal behaviors

Download ppt "Chapter 1 Discovering Psychology"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google