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**So, What’s New in the Common Core State Standards?**

Susan A Gendron Senior Fellow International Center for Leadership in Education June 2011

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**Standards Charge Create the next generation of K-12 standards**

All students college and career ready in literacy and mathematics No later than end of high school Build upon the foundation laid by the states Create a vision of what it means to be a literate student in the twenty-first century Students who readily undertake the close, attentive reading that is the heart of understanding and enjoying complex works of literature. Habitually perform the critical reading necessary to pick carefully through the staggering amount of information They actively seek wide, deep and thoughtful engagement with high-quality literary and informational text that builds knowledge, enlarges experiences and broadens worldviews. They demonstrate cogent reasoning and use evidence that is essential for deliberations and responsible citizenship

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**Common Core State Standards**

Fewer Clearer Higher

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**Common Core Standards Criteria**

Rigorous Clear and specific Teachable and learnable Measurable Coherent Grade by grade standards Internationally benchmarked Rigor high-level cognitive demands by asking students to demonstrate deep conceptual understanding through the application of content knowledge and skills to new situations. sufficient guidance and clarity so that they are teachable, learnable, and measurable. Teachable and learnable: Provide sufficient guidance for the design of curricula and instructional materials. The standards must be reasonable in scope, instructionally manageable, and promote depth of understanding. The standards will not prescribe how they are taught and learned but will allow teachers flexibility to teach and students to learn in various instructionally relevant contexts. Measureable: Student attainment of the standards should be observable and verifiable and the standards can be used to develop broader assessment frameworks Coherent: The standards should convey a unified vision of the big ideas and supporting concepts within a discipline and reflect a progression of learning that is meaningful and appropriate. Grade-by-grade standards: The standards will have limited repetition across the grades or grade spans to help educators align instruction to the standards. Internationally benchmarked: The standards will be informed by the content, rigor, and organization of standards of high-performing countries so that all students are prepared for succeeding in our global economy and society.

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**44 States + DC Have Adopted the Common Core State Standards**

*Minnesota adopted the CCSS in ELA only

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**LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS**

STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS JUNE 2010 6

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**Design and Organization**

Three main sections K-5 (cross-disciplinary) 6-12 English Language Arts 6-12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

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**Design and Organization**

Three appendices A: Research and evidence; glossary of key terms B: Reading text exemplars; sample performance tasks C: Annotated student writing samples

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**Design and Organization**

Shared responsibilities for students’ literacy development

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**Design and Organization**

Focus on results rather than means Focus on achievement leaves room for teachers, curriculum developers and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be taught Teachers are free to provide students with what ever tools their professional judgment and experience identify as most helpful

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**Design and Organization**

An integrated model of literacy Focus on achievement leaves room for teachers, curriculum developers and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be taught Teachers are free to provide students with what ever tools their professional judgment and experience identify as most helpful

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**Design and Organization**

Media skills blended throughout Focus on achievement leaves room for teachers, curriculum developers and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be taught Teachers are free to provide students with what ever tools their professional judgment and experience identify as most helpful

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**Design and Organization**

K−12 standards Grade-specific end-of-year expectations Developmentally appropriate, cumulative progression of skills and understandings One-to-one correspondence with College Career Anchor standards 14 14

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**Design and Organization**

Four strands: Reading (including Reading Foundational Skills) Writing Speaking and Listening Language Focus on achievement leaves room for teachers, curriculum developers and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be taught Teachers are free to provide students with what ever tools their professional judgment and experience identify as most helpful

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**Reading Design and Organization**

Three sections: 1. Literature 2. Informational Text 3. Foundational Skills (K-5) Literature: students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

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**Literary/Informational Text**

Literature Informational Text Stories Drama Poetry Literary Nonfiction and Historical, Scientific, and Technical Texts Includes children’s adventure stories, folktales, legends, fables, fantasy, realistic fiction, and myth Includes staged dialogue and brief familiar scenes Includes nursery rhymes and the subgenres of the narrative poem, limerick, and free verse poem Includes biographies and autobiographies; books about history, social studies, science, and the arts; technical texts, including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps; and digital sources on a range of topics

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**Reading Framework for NAEP 2009**

Grade Literary Informational 4 50% 8 45% 55% 12 30% 70% Standards demand a greater focus on informational text literary non fiction Major focus in 6-12

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**College and Career Readiness Standards for Reading**

Key Ideas and Details 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

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**College and Career Readiness Standards for Reading**

Craft and Structure 4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. 5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

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**College and Career Readiness Standards for Reading**

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. *8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. Informational text

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**College and Career Readiness Standards for Reading**

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10 .Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

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**Text complexity is defined by:**

Overview of Text Complexity Reading Standards include over exemplar texts (stories and literature, poetry, and informational texts) that illustrate appropriate level of complexity by grade Text complexity is defined by: Qualitative Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands Quantitative Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity Best measured by an attentive reader Ability to make an informed decision about the difficulty of a text Knowledge of four factors in developing effective tools: Levels of Meaning or Purpose Reader and Task: Determining whether a given text is appropriate for the student: Cognitive abilities Motivation Topic knowledge Linguistic and discourse knowledge Comprehension strategies Experiences “Reading for Understanding, 2002, The RAND Reading Study group” Quantitative:Word length or frequency (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level text, Dale-Chall Readability Formula, Lexile) Sentence length Text cohesion (University of Memphis, Coh-Metrix) Measurement tools ( Lexile example Structure Language Conventionality & Clarity Knowledge Demands Reader and Task Reader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned

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Qualitative Measure Levels of Meaning (literary texts) or Purpose (informational texts) Structure Language Conventionality and Clarity Knowledge Demands: Life Experiences (literary texts) Knowledge Demands: Cultural/Literary Knowledge (chiefly literary texts) Knowledge Demands: Content/Discipline Knowledge (chiefly informational texts) Page 6 sheet

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**Quantitative Measures**

Readability tools: (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level test, Lexile Framework for Reading, Dale-Chall) Use multiple tools

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**Text Complexity Grade Bands and Associated Lexile Ranges**

Text Complexity Grade Band in the Standards Old Lexile Ranges Lexile Ranges Aligned to CCR expectations K-1 N/A 2-3 4-5 6-8 9-10 11-CCR Metametrics has realigned its Lexile ranges to match the Standards’ text complexity grade bands and has adjusted upward its trajectory of reading comprehension development through the grades

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**Lexile Analyzer http://www.lexile.com/analyzer/**

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**Grade 4 Informational text**

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Grade 4 Informational Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 8 Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.

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Performance Task Students explain how Melvin Berger uses reasons and evidence in his book Discovering Mars: The Amazing Story of the Red Planet to support particular points regarding the topology of the planet. [RI.4.8]

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**Grade 7 Informational Text**

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**Grade 7 Informational Craft and Structure**

4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

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Performance Task Students determine the figurative and connotative meanings of words such as wayfaring, laconic, and taciturnity as well as of phrases such as hold his peace in John Steinbeck’s Travels with Charley: In Search of America. They analyze how Steinbeck’s specific word choices and diction impact the meaning and tone of his writing and the characterization of the individuals and places he describes. [RI.7.4] Grade Seven

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**College and Career Readiness Writing Standards**

Text Types and Purposes Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective techniques, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

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**NAEP 2011 Writing Framework**

Grade To Persuade To Explain To Convey Experience 4 30% 35% 8 12 40% 20%

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K- argument, The writer of this piece•tells the reader the name of the book (in the title of the paper). oMy fabit (favorite) Book is do you Want to be my FRIEND•states an opinion or preference about the book. o. . . my fait (favorite) pot (part) is the hos (horse)

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Grade 2 Argument

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Grade 2 Argument

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Grade 4 argumant

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Grade 8 Informative/Explanatory introduces the topic clearly, previewing what is to follow.The writer provides a brief summary of the plot i

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Two key elements of the quotation (destroyed but not defeated) help establish theoverall structure of the piece.oThe second, third, and fourth paragraphs each recount extended examples of Santiago’s struggle and determination (e.g., Santiago has gone eighty-four days straight without catching a fish. young Manolin’s parents will no longer allow the two to fish together, for they do not want their son being exposed any more to this type of failure but Santiago does not let the loss of his friend or the defeat that others see him suffering keep him off the sea. Rather, with bright and shining eyes he thinks “maybe today. Every day is a new day”.

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**College and Career Readiness Writing Standards**

Production and Distribution of Writing Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.

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**College and Career Readiness Writing Standards**

Research to Build and Present Knowledge Conduct short, as well as more sustained research projects based on questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

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**Example/ Science Technical**

Sample Task A: Evaluating Evidence Compare what the latest science tells us about Genetically Modified food against the arguments for and against Genetically Modified food. Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, conclusions of each side, and including determining the extent to which each side in the debate relied on the available science, argues from an economical perspective, or appeals to the political and emotional concerns. Verify the data and either support or challenge the conclusions with other sources of information. CCSS RST.8 Source: Achieve

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**Example/ Science Technical**

Sample B – Making a claim Read and view different examples of case-making materials related to GM food. Take a position and cite specific textual evidence from your sources, attending to important distinctions each authors makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. Defend your conclusion from counter-claims Create a presentation of your analysis that highlights key evidence and your strongest claims. CCSS RST 1. and RST 9. Source: Achieve

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**College and Career Readiness Writing Standards**

Range of Writing Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

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**College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening**

Comprehension and Collaboration 1. Range of conversations and collaborations, diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. 2. Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. 3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

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**College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening**

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. 5. Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations. 6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

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**College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language**

Conventions of Standard English When writing or speaking. Use capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. Knowledge of Language To comprehend more fully when reading or listening. Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, 5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings 6. Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words

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**Building Analytic Thinking Skills**

Word “analysis” appears 57 times in the CCSS with 77 mentions of associated analysis words such as “compare and contrast” Analysis – precursor to high level thinking Lin Kuzmich Stretch Learning Handbook

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**Analytic Thinking Process**

What is the purpose of this material? What is a key question that is addressed or needs to be addressed? What is the most important information? What are the main inferences that can be made? What are the key ideas or concepts?

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**Analytic Thinking Process**

What are the assumptions the author(s) made in this information, issue, or source What are the implications of this information? What is the main point of view that is presented? Paul,R. and Elder, L. (2003) Analytic Thinking Foundation for Critical Thinking Press (page 23)

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**Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects**

Common Core Reading Standard for Informational Text Anchor Standard Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects Grades 9-10 Grades 11-12 Integration of Knowledge & Ideas 7.Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.* 7.Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. 7.Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.

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**STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICS JUNE 2010**

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**Characteristics Fewer and more rigorous.**

Aligned with college and career expectations – prepare all students for success upon graduating from high school. Internationally benchmarked, so that all students are prepared for succeeding in our global economy and society. Includes rigorous content and application of higher- order skills. Builds upon strengths and lessons of current state standards. Research based

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Coherence Articulated progressions of topics and performances that are developmental and connected to other progressions Conceptual understanding and procedural skills emphasized equally NCTM states coherence also means that instruction, assessment, and curriculum are aligned

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**Focus Key ideas, understandings, and skills are identified**

Deep learning of concepts is stressed That is, time is spent on a topic and on learning it well. This counters the “mile wide, inch deep” criticism leveled at most current U.S. standards.

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**Clarity and Specificity**

Skills and concepts are clearly defined Being able to apply concepts and skills to new situations is expected

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**Standards for Mathematical Practice**

Describe mathematical “habits of mind” Standards for mathematical proficiency: reasoning, problem solving, modeling, decision making, and engagement Connect with content standards in each grade

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**Mathematics/Standards for Mathematical Practice**

Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them Reason abstractly and quantitatively Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others Model with mathematics Use appropriate tools strategically Attend to precision Look for and make use of structure Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning 1.Analyze givens, constraints, relationships and goals

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**Critical Areas – similar to NCTM’s Curriculum Focal Points**

Grade Level Overview Critical Areas – similar to NCTM’s Curriculum Focal Points All K-8 have critical areas – areas that should be emphasized and require more time at the given grade level. This aligns exactly with CFP

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**Format of K-8 Standards Grade Level Domain**

The letters 1.0A separate domains

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**Format of K-8 Standards Domain Statement Standard Cluster**

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**Cognitively-Guided Instruction Process**

Start the study of a new concept with a rich problem or hypothesis Invite your students to engage in the problem Communicate multiple representations of solutions Questions, justify, and critique thinking Use your understanding of student thinking to guide further instruction

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The K-5 standards: Counting and Cardinality (K) Operations & Algebraic Thinking Number & Operations in Base Ten Number & Operations – Fractions (3-5) Measurement & Data Geometry

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Kindergarten

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**Common Addition and Subtraction Situations**

Results Unknown Change Unknown Start Unknown Add to Sally has 4 rocks. John gave her 6 more rocks. How many rocks does S Sally had 4 rocks. How many rocks does she need to have 10 rocks altogether? Sally had some rocks. John gave her 6 more rocks. Now she has 10 rocks. How many rocks did Sally have to start with? Take from Sally had 10 rocks. She gave 4 to John. How many rocks does Sally have left? Sally had 10 rocks. She gave some to John. Now she has 6 rocks left. How many rocks did Sally give to John? Sally had some rocks. She gave 4 to John. Now she has 6 rocks left. How many rocks did Sally have to start with?

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**Common addition and subtraction situations**

Total Unknown Added Unknown Both Addends Unknown Put Together/Take apart Sally has 4 red rocks and 6 blue rocks. How many rocks does she have? 4 + 6 = ? Sally has 10 rocks. 4 are red and the rest are blue. How many blue rocks does Sally have? 4 + ? = 10 Sally has 10 rocks. How many can she put in the blue box and how many in her red box? 10 = 0 +10, 10=10 + 0 10 = 5 + 5 10 = 6 + 4

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**Compare Addition and Subtraction situations**

Differences Unknown Bigger Unknown Smaller Unknown Compare Sally has 10 rocks. John has 6 rocks. How many more rocks does Sally have than John? 10 – 6 = ? 6 + ? = 10 John has 6 rocks. Sally has 4 more than John. How many rocks does Sally have? 6 + 4 = ? 4 + 6 = ? Sally has 10 rocks. She has 6 more rocks than John. How many rocks does John have? ? + 6 = 10

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**Common multiplication and division situations**

Problem Types Multiplication Partition Division Measurement Division Equal Group (Whole unknown) Mark has 4 bags of apples. There are 5 apples in each bag. How many apples does Mark have altogether (Size of groups unknown) Mark has 20 apples. He wants to share them equally among his 4 friends. How many apples will each friend receive? (Number of groups unknown) Mark has 20 apples. He puts them in bags with 5 apples in each. How many bags did he use? Equal Group Problems (rate (Whole unknown) If apples cost 4 cents each, how much would 5 apples cost? (Size of groups unknown) Jill paid 20 cents for 5 apples. What is the cost of 1 apple? (Number of groups unknown) Jill bought apples for 4 cents each. She spent 20 cents. How many apples did she buy?

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**Common multiplication and division situations**

Equal Group Problems (rate) (Whole unknown) Peter walked for 5 hours at 4 miles per hour. How far did he walk? (Size of groups unknown) Peter walked 20 miles in 5 hours. How fast was he walking (in miles per hour)? (Number of groups unknown) Peter walked 20 miles at a rate of 4 miles per hour. How long did he walk for? Compare Problems (Product unknown) Jill picked 4 apples. Bill picked 5 times as many. How many apples did Bill pick? (Set size unknown) Mark picked 20 apples. He picked 4 times as many as Jill. How many apples did Jill pick? (Multiplier Unknown) Mark Picked 20 apples and Jill picked only 4. How many times as many apples did Mark pick as Jill did?

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**Grade 6-8 Ratios and Proportional Relationships (6-7) Number Systems**

Expressions & Equations Geometry Statistics & Probability Functions (8) multiplication is finding an unknown product, and division is finding an unknown factor in these situations.

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**K-8 Learning Progressions**

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HS Pathways 1.) Traditional (US) – 2 Algebra, Geometry and Data, probability and statistics included in each course 2.) International (integrated) three courses including number , algebra, geometry, probability and statistics each year 3.) Compacted version of traditional – grade 7/8 and algebra completed by end of 8th grade 4.) Compacted integrated model, allowing students to reach Calculus or other college level courses

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The second part of the pathways shows the clusters and standards as they appear in the courses. Each course contains the following components:• • •An introduction to the course and a list of the units in the course Unit titles and unit overviews (see below) Units that show the cluster titles, associated standards, and instructional notes (below)

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**Number and Quantity Overview**

Real Number System Quantities Complex Number System Vector and Matrix Quantities

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**Algebra Overview Seeing Structure in Expressions**

Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions Creating Equations Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities

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**Functions Interpreting Functions Building Functions**

Linear, Quadratic and Exponential Models Trigonometric Functions

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**Modeling Identify the problem Formulate a model**

Analyze and perform operations Interpret results Validate the conclusion Report on the conclusion

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**Geometry Congruence Similarity, Right Triangles, and Trigonometry**

Circles Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations Geometric Measurement and Dimension Modeling and Geometry

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**Statistics and Probability**

Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data Making Inferences and Justifying Conclusions Conditional Probability and the Rules of Probability Using Probability to Make Decisions

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**Key Advances Focus and coherence Balance of concepts and skills**

Focus on key topics at each grade level. Coherent progressions across grade levels. Balance of concepts and skills Content standards require both conceptual understanding and procedural fluency. Mathematical practices Foster reasoning and sense-making in mathematics. College and career readiness Level is ambitious but achievable.

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**Recommended Professional Development**

Grades K–2, Counting and Cardinality and Number and Operations in Base Grades K–5 Operations and Algebraic Thinking Grades 3–5 Number and Operations—Fractions Grades 6–7 Ratios and Proportional Reasoning Grade 8 Geometry

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**Prepare for this important transition**

This informative and practical new resource kit provides insight into: How the new in-depth performance events differ from current assessments How the Rigor / Relevance Framework® can help facilitate college and career readiness What fewer, clearer, higher standards mean for states and schools What must be done now to prepare for implementation in 2014 By Sue Gendron Policy Coordinator, SMARTER Balance Assessment Consortium

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Sue Gendron Senior Fellow International Center

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