Information Systems for Managers (April 26, 2000) Tralvex (Rex) Yeap MAAAI MSCS University of Leeds
2 SDLC 4 4 The SDLC is the oldest method for building IS and is still used today for complex medium to large systems projects. 4 4 SDLC however, is not well suited for small scale projects because: (1) It is very resource intensive (2) It is very inflexible and inhibits change (3) It is ill-suited for decision-oriented applications Fig 7.1 Typical System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) diagram.
4 Alternative IS Development: (1) Prototyping 4 4 An iterative approach to systems development 4 4 Operational prototype Accesses real data files, edits input data, makes necessary computations and comparisons, and produces real output (in short, real I P O). 4 4 Non-operational prototype A mockup, or model (or simulated I P O). Figure 3.4 Prototyping Process
5 Alternative IS Development: (2) End User Development 4 4 End-user systems development are systems development project in which the primary effort is undertaken by some combination of business managers and end- users - excluding professional computer developers. 4 4 Benefits includes: Lower Costs Users have better knowledge of business processes and needs Lead times on development may be shorter Relieves shortage of system development personnel User may have more control over system development and use 4 Risks and Difficulties includes: Errors (and difficulties) in data retrieval and analysis Lack of documentation Proliferation of private systems Lack of expertise and enforcement on acceptable standards and practices
6 4 4 Outsourcing is the contracting with outside businesses or services to perform the work once done by in-house departments. 4 4 Advantages: Reduced costs sometimes fixed price service quality Alternative IS Development: (3) Outsourcing 4 Disadvantages: needs to be carefully monitored can be risky loss of control, over-reliant on vendor potential security threats
7 There are good and sufficient reasons for selectively outsourcing: 4 4 The organization is incapable of attracting or retaining talent for specialized technologies, especially for innovative uses. It is increasingly true in the public sector. 4 4 The budgeting and capital-investment process is spasmodic, short-term-oriented, and subject to reversals in top management's goals, objectives, and preferences. Increasingly, this characterizes much of the industry, as well as most of the public sector. 4 4 The learning curve for a new or risky technology is especially steep. Therefore, it pays to have an experienced firm introduce the technology at a much lower cost. 4 4 The organization is internally in turmoil and cannot manage IT because its managerial energies are concentrating on the survival of the firm. 4 4 The organization is very profitable but does not wish to devote scarce managerial resources to managing IT. This calls for inventing new forms of relationships that may not be arm's-length commercial contracts. Alternative IS Development: (4) Outsourcing (cont.)