Presentation on theme: "PREPARED BY: VARIA V. VIRDAUS, M.A.. When you are referring to habitual actions--actions that you always or never do Ex: He always comes late to class."— Presentation transcript:
When you are referring to habitual actions--actions that you always or never do Ex: He always comes late to class. When you are referring to unchanging truths Ex: The sun rises in the east. When you are making general statements of fact Ex: They are friendly.
Basic pattern: Using Verb (+) S + V1 (simple form) (- )S + do/does + NOT + V1 (?)Do/does + S + V1 Example: (+) Dina walks to campus everyday. (-) Dina does not walk to the campus everyday. (?) Does Dina walk to campus everyday?
I, You, They, We Do ( hanya dalam kalimat negatif dan tanya!) She, He, It, Andi, Lia, father, mother, etc Does (hanya dalam kalimat negatif dan tanya!)
Using Non-Verb (+) S + To Be (is, am, are) + Non-verb ( -) S + To Be + NOT + Non-verb (?) To Be + S + Non-Verb Note: “Non-verb” can be “Adjective, and Noun” Example: (+) She is beautiful. (Beautiful merupakan kata sifat) (-) She is not beautiful. (?) Is she beautiful?
I am You are They are We are She is He is It is Ali is Liza is
Verb ‘to be’ in the Simple Present Tense What are the three patterns for the use of the verb ‘to be’ or linking verb, in the simple present tense? They are: I. SUBJECTTO BEPREDICATE NOUN His wifeisa public prosecutor. Mr. Kismoisan Attorney General.
II. SUBJECTTO BEPREDICATE ADJECTIVE The Attorney Generalisshort and fat. Heisintelligent. The judgesaretired (letih).
III. SUBJECT TO BE PREDICATE ADVERB The Chief Justiceis from central Java. His childrenare at the university. His wifeis at home.
‘To Be’ is also used with the expletive there as substitute subject. Note that in a sentence with expletive there, the verb agrees with the actual subject that follows it. EXPLETIVETO BE SUBJECT Thereare students in the class. Thereis a lawyer on the board of trustees (dewan pengawas). Thereare two members of the city council here today.