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Chapter 2: Cognitive development How children’s thinking developsChild development Chapter 2: Cognitive development How children’s thinking develops © Hodder Education 2009
Piaget’s Theory 1 Constructivist assumptionsBabies start with simple schemas. They learn new schemas by adaptation assimilation accommodation. This is discovery learning. © Hodder Education 2009
Piaget’s Theory 2 Learning is in cognitive stagesSensorimotor stage (zero to two years) object permanence + research studies Preoperational stage (two to seven years) animism; centration; egocentrism; + research studies Concrete operational stage (seven to 11 years) logical thought; conservation; reversibility; + research studies Formal operational stage (12 years +) abstract concepts + research studies © Hodder Education 2009
Piaget’s Theory 3 Evaluation of: his theory his research methodsrigid stages; sequential shifts; ethnocentrism; discovery vs guidance; formal operational achievement his research methods biased samples; standardisation, control; lack of clarity; biased assumptions his overall work innovative approach; importance of cognitive development; clinical observations of children his contribution to education active discovery; implications in the classroom and learning © Hodder Education 2009
Vygotsky’s Theory 1 internalisation zone of proximal developmentAssumptions Learning through social experiences internalisation zone of proximal development Learning is a socio-cultural process. © Hodder Education 2009
Vygotsky’s Theory 2 Scaffolding Guided participation Language© Hodder Education 2009
Vygotsky’s Theory 3 His contribution to educationlanguage (supported by Bruner) peer tutoring collective argumentation community of enquiry Evaluation of Vygotsky’s theory acceleration of cognitive development vs Piaget’s stages encouragement or discouragement of independent learning and initiative assumptions about adult participation © Hodder Education 2009
Vygotsky and Piaget comparedCognitive development is driven by social interaction and experience within a culture Cognitive development is driven by the child’s inbuilt tendency to adapt to new experiences Child learns through instruction and guidance Child learns through active self-discovery Cognitive development can be accelerated Child will learn only when ready The ability to use language is the key to cognitive development. Outward monologues direct thinking and later become internalised as thought Language develops as a result of cognitive development. Outward monologues are meaningless and egocentric speech is incidental to thought © Hodder Education 2009
Nativist explanations 1Assumptions We have innate cognitive structures. Genetic predispositions for cognition e.g. grammar; perceptual abilities. Learning is at least partly genetically determined. Evaluation of the explanation challenges Piaget an incomplete explanation © Hodder Education 2009
Information-processing approach 1Assumptions Brain processing is similar to computer processing With key changes in how information is processed as the child develops Cognitive, i.e. processing, efficiency increases because of: increased processing capacity and efficiency, and development of problem-solving rules and metacognition Siegler’s research: overlapping waves increasingly complex cognitive strategies © Hodder Education 2009
Information-processing approach 2Evaluation Siegler’s research: sequential change and importance of feedback and practice individual experience empirical methods The information-processing approach to cognitive development: Separating components of cognition Numerous studies Applications to teaching Links with neurophysiology © Hodder Education 2009
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