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World War II to Sept. 11.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II to Sept. 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II to Sept. 11

2 Pearl Harbor U.S. naval base in Hawaii
Attacked by Japan unexpectedly on December 7, 1941 United States declares war on Japan and enters World War II 2

3 Japanese-American Internment Camps
After Pearl Harbor, the United States racists fears led the country to put 120,000 Japanese Americans in concentration camps

4 Lend-Lease Act Passed after Pearl Harbor, the U.S. sends military equipment and supplies to its Allies during World War II Britain, France, Soviet Union and China all receive aid

5 War Mobilization Millions of men volunteered after Pear Harbor to fight World War II Factories- were converted from consumer goods to military goods

6 Rationing for WWII Rationing- everything went to the war, so Americans were only allowed a small portion of key items that were needed for the war Americans donate metals, newspapers, rubber, clothes, paper to the war effort.

7 Women Work for the War Factories-millions take the place of men and build the machines of war. Equality- first time women are seen as equal to their male counterparts. Will eventually lead to greater rights for women. Rosie the Riveter- symbol of the American women’s war effort.

8 D-Day D-Day- codename for Operation Overlord, Allied troops landed in Normandy, France The largest sea invasion in history, German troops were caught off guard an unable to push back the invasion This was the beginning of the end for Germany in WWII

9 Battle of Midway Battle of Midway- Led by Admiral Nimitz, the U.S. sinks four Japanese Aircraft carriers to the American one. Turning Point in the war against the Japanese who never fully recovered from the loss of the aircraft carriers and aviators from this battle. Mass Production replaces our losses and puts the pressure on Japan.

10 Fall of Berlin Ends the War in Europe
One of the final battles in the European Theater of WWII The Soviet Union storms the city; bloodiest battles of the war Hitler and most of his key leaders commit suicide during the battle Ends the War in Europe

11 Manhattan Project Los Alamos, New Mexico- This is where the United States developed the Atomic Bomb President Truman- orders the dropping of it on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to force the surrender of the country

12 Impact of the Atomic Bomb
The Atomic Bomb was a game changer and for the first time humans could destroy the Earth Made the U.S.A. a superpower in the world Will lead to Nuclear energy and the Nuclear Arms Race between the U.S. and Soviet Union

13 Post WWII and the Cold War
Marshall Plan- was America’s program for rebuilding Western Europe to protect it from communism. It was the United States best weapon against the influence of the Soviet Union

14 Cold War This was a name given to the relations between the U.S. & the Soviet Union in the second half of the 20th century which saw the buildup of nuclear arms.

15 Cold War and Containment
Containment- the U.S. was determined to stop the spread of communism throughout the world Truman Doctrine- American foreign policy to provide economic and military aid to any country to prevent it from becoming communist The U.S. tried to contain the Soviet Union’s influence

16 Communist China Mao Zedong is the leader of the Communist Revolution in China after WWII he overthrew the Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek in 1949. Chiang Kai-shek will establish the country of Taiwan an island off the coast of China. Americans blame Truman for not stopping the spread of communism 16

17 Korean War Korea- In 1950 Communist North Korea invades South Korea The U.S. sends troops in to help protect S. Korea and pushed N. Korea back to the Chinese border Communist China sends in troops to help N. Korea and an armistice is signed in 1954 ending the war, leaving the country divided

18 McCarthyism Senator McCarthy led the second Red Scare in America during the 1950s He lied about communist infiltrations in the U.S. government and army, destroying the lives of innocent people He was later found to be lying about all of his accusations

19 Cuban Revolution Fidel Castro- led the suc-cessful Cuban revolution in 1959 to overthrow the corrupt government backed by the U.S.A. Castro- established a com-munist government in Cuba, this catches the U.S. off guard and angers it. President Eisenhower places an embargo on Cuba to isolate it

20 Baby Boom 1945–1965 are the baby boom years; the birth rate in the United States soars when soldiers return from World War II and the Korean War.

21 Interstate Highway Act
Eisenhower gets Congress to pay for a Federal Highway system, for Defense. The highway connects people to the suburbs, cities, schools, and shopping malls. Whites begin to flee to the suburbs like Levittown. Fast Food restaurants develop to feed the people in the cars of Suburbia

22 Levittown The first large scale suburban development in the United States The cookie cutter home development, it is the inspiration for suburbs everywhere

23 Sputnik In 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first ever satellite into space This frightened Americans who felt the U.S. had fallen behind the Soviet Union The U.S. devotes millions into Science and Math education to improve our technology

24 Jackie Robinson The first black to integrate Major League Baseball in 1947 with the Brooklyn Dodgers This leads to Truman desegregating the Military and re-launches the Civil Rights Movement after WWII

25 Integration of the U.S. Military
President Truman- orders the integration of the U.S. military in 1948 One of the first major Civil Rights changes of the 20th century

26 Brown v. Board of Education
The Supreme Court ended the practice of Separate but Equal in 1954

27 Southern reaction to Brown v. Board of Education
Little Rock Nine- were 9 African-Americans who integrated Little Rock Central H.S. President Eisenhower had to send in the Air Force to protect them from angry whites White Southerners were angered over the end of Separate but Equal

28 Election of 1960 Kennedy Wins!!!!!
VS. Televised Debates Voters fell in love with the physical appearance and charisma possessed by Kennedy. He was confident and organized. Nixon was pale, sweating and tense. This election proved the power of T.V. in politics

29 Bay of Pigs Invasion Kennedy’s biggest mistake, he gives approval to a plan by the C.I.A. to overthrow Castro using Cuban exiles. The exiles are captured by Castro on the beaches of Cuba Embarrassment- Kennedy is forced to pay a ransom (food/medicine) to free the exiles. Castro- uses this to get more support from the Soviet Union and strengthen his grip on power.

30 Cuban Missile Crisis Crisis- the closest the world ever came to all out nuclear war. Spy planes discover that Cuba was building underground missile sites for nuclear weapons that could reach the U.S. in minutes

31 Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy Reacts- orders a naval blockade of Cuba until all weapons are removed. The U.S.S.R. is told that any ship that tries to run the blockade will start a full scale war with the U.S. Khrushchev Reacts- turns the Soviet ships around and removes the missiles if Kennedy promises not to invade Cuba

32 Fallout of the Cuban Missile Crisis
Hotline- direct line between D.C. and Moscow to allow for peaceful talks Khrushchev- reputation is damaged in the U.S.S.R. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty-100 nations agree to stop open air testing of nuclear weapons Criticism- Kennedy seen as soft for not ousting Castro, brinkmanship policy

33 Kennedy Assassination
November 23,1963 President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Stunned Americans- were devastated by the Kennedy assassination, remember where they were. Civil Rights Agenda- gets a boost with his death as Vice President Johnson is a better politician, Johnson will get several landmark laws passed.

34 Vietnam War Military conflict between the Communist forces of North Vietnam supported by China and the Soviet Union and the non-Communist forces of South Vietnam supported by the United States.

35 Tet Offensive Vietcong troops take advantage of a cease fire between the North and South and launch a sneak attack U.S. military defeats the Vietcong but Americans turn on the war President Johnson losses American support for the war, the media attacks the war.

36 Opposition to the Vietnam War
Begins on college campuses but spreads to all walks of life as the war drags on for years and deaths mount Television shows the graphic nature of the war, turning Americans against it People protest the ability of the wealthy and middle class to “buy” their way out of the war, leading to bigger protests by the poor against the war

37 Opposition to the Vietnam War
Protesters- calls for civil disobedience; counsels students to go abroad, antiwar demonstrations, protests increase, some become violent Some men burn draft cards; some refuse to serve; some flee to Canada

38 Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society
The Great Society- Johnson’s program to end poverty and racism in the U.S. 1. Medicare- medical insurance program for those 65 and older. 2. Medicaid- government paid healthcare for poor and disabled

39 Civil Rights and Television
For the first time Southern tactics to maintain segregation are shown on T.V. horrifying white liberals The beatings, killings, and attacks on African-Americans force White America to confront segregation and inequality

40 Letter from Birmingham Jail
Written by Martin Luther King Jr. it is his attempt to explain to White America why victims of segregation, violent attacks, and murder found it difficult to wait for injustices to end in the South I Have a Dream- King’s most famous speech given in Washington D.C., it calls for a future of racial harmony and peace

41 Civil Rights Act of 1964 This law signed by President Johnson banned discrimination of any kind in any park, restroom, library, theater, and public building in America This was inspired by King’s “I have a dream” speech

42 Voting Rights Act of 1965 Outlawed the Jim Crow restrictions on African Americans right to vote declaring it unconstitutional Banned the use of literacy tests, poll taxes, jelly bean counting Let the Federal government to overlook voting rights violations and register millions of minorities in the 1960’s

43 SNCC and SCLC SNCC- Student non-violent Coordinated Committee was made up of young people who were the front line soldiers of the Civil Rights Movement SCLC- Southern Christian Leadership Committee were the “leaders” of the movement. They were the organizers and speech makers

44 Warren Court 1953-1969 Key Cases:
The Supreme Court under Justice Warren will protect the rights of individuals and minorities Key Cases: Brown vs. Board of Ed 1954-ends separate but equal 2. Miranda v. Arizona- criminals must have their rights read, lawyer present during questioning

45 National Organization of Women
NOW- founded to promote equal rights for women of all races in America NOW fights for political, social, and economic equality in America

46 Environmental Movement
Silent Spring- written by Rachel Carson it set off the Environmental Movement in America It led to the Water Quality Act of 1965 and the Earth Day Environmental Protection Agency- established to limit pollution, protect the environment and clean up polluted sites in America

47 United Farm Workers Led by Cesar Chavez he fights for the rights of migrant farm workers Improved the working conditions and wages of migrant workers Used non-violent protests to achieve their goals

48 Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated
April 4th, Martin Luther King Jr. is shot on a motel balcony in Memphis, Tenn., by James Earl Ray. Riots break out in African American communities revealing the anger and frustration still felt in the North and South.

49 Robert F. Kennedy Assassinated
Robert F. Kennedy- is run-ning for the office of President. June 5, RFK is shot by an assassin after winning the presidential primary in California. Reaction- many counter culture supporters, African Americans and democrats are devastated. He was the last liberal “60’s” politicians.

50 Democratic National Convention 1968
Protesters are marching out of anger at the convention Chicago police attack and beat protesters who were marching to the convention T.V.- Conservative White America sees this as an attack against their country and vote Republican to restore order in the country

51 The Conservative Movement
Barry Goldwater(1964) runs for President, this is the beginning of the conservative movement President Richard Nixon (1968)wins office, elected by the “silent majority” who want America restored to the good old days 51

52 Conservative Movement
The "Solid South" angry with Democratic party support of Civil Rights for African-Americans and Women Opposition to "Liberal" Supreme Court's Judicial Activism Beliefs- they opposed civil rights, gun control, liberals, Feminism, Affirmative Action, Sexual Revolution, Hippies, Gay Rights, Great Society, big government, Social Security, and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).

53 Nixon Presidency Visits China to open up relations, only a staunch anti-communist could repair relations, recognizes Communist China Watergate Scandal: Centered on Nixon’s attempt to cover up a burglary at the offices of the Democratic Party Crime committed by Nixon’s reelection team - Nixon forced to resign due to his attempts to cover up the break-ins

54 Americans turn on the government
Americans no longer trust the government after the disastrous Vietnam War and Nixon Presidency American become very cynical about their political leaders Americans want President Nixon arrested to stand trial 54

55 President Gerald Ford He becomes president after Nixon resigns Ford grants Nixon a Presidential pardon on Watergate; people are angry Ford is president during a recession and can’t deal with the high unemployment and gas prices

56 Key Supreme Court Decisions
Roe v. Wade this case legalized abortion in the United States Bakke v. California A white male sues the University of California for reverse discrimination. The Supreme Court bans the use of race in college admission applications

57 Camp David Accords Negotiated by President Carter it is a peace settlement between Egypt and Israel. First step in the peace process between Israel and Arab nations Egypt recognizes Israel, the 1st Arab nation in the world to do so.

58 Iranian Revolt 1979 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini overthrew the U.S. backed Shah of Iran and established a Islamic fundamentalist government President Carter was unable to deal with the situation, which led to another oil shortage when Iran stopped producing oil

59 Iran Hostage Crisis 50 members of the U.S. Embassy in Iran are held hostage when Iranian students overwhelm the guards. For 444 days President Carter can not get the hostages freed. Led to Carter’s defeat in the Presidential election of 1980

60 President Ronald Reagan
His election is seen as a victory for the Conservative Movement During his presidency he will appoint conservative judges to overturn the decisions of the Warren Court

61 Reaganomics An economic policy followed by President Reagan it wanted to: Give the wealthy huge tax cuts, the wealthy are then suppose to help the poor by starting businesses and creating jobs Budget Cuts, reduced government spending on all domestic programs Build up the armed force

62 Iran-Contra Scandal The Reagan administration agreed to sell billions in weapons to Iran for help in freeing American hostages in the Middle East. President Reagan was dealing in illegal weapon sales beyond his powers, upsets the system of checks and balances in America. Conservative America does not care sees him as a great president

63 Collapse of the Soviet Union
Reagan’s plan was to force the U.S.S.R. to keep up in an arm’s race, this bankrupts the Soviet Union The leader of the Soviet Union Gorbachev establishes better relations with the U.S. The collapse of the Soviet Union marks the end of the Cold War in 1991

64 President Clinton North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)- this created a free trade zone between the U.S., Canada and Mexico Impeached in 1998 by the Republican House of Representatives, Clinton becomes the second U.S. President to be impeached Clinton is acquitted by the Senate

65 2000 Presidential Election
Highly controversial election in which Vice President Gore wins the popular vote but loses the electoral vote to President Bush Supreme Court- selects Bush as President when it refuses to allow Gore to continue arguing the election in Florida

66 War on Terrorism September 11, America is attacked beginning the “war” Operation Enduring Freedom: invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 Operation Iraqi Freedom: War in Iraq in 2003

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