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WORLD WAR II Chapters 16-17 1931-1945.

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR II Chapters 16-17 1931-1945."— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD WAR II Chapters 16-17

2 World War II: Prelude to Pearl Harbor, 1931-1941
Main Idea: As dictatorships rose in Asia and Europe, the U.S. tried to remain isolated. Official isolationism ended when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor

1925 – Mussolini became dictator in Italy 1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria (China) 1934 – Hitler seized power in Germany 1935 – Italy invaded Ethiopia 1936 – Rome-Berlin “Axis” formed 1937 – Japan launched full invasion of China (Peking) 1938 – Germany invaded Austria; Anschluss (union) proclaimed

1938 – Munich Conference; Germany occupied the Sudetenland 1939 – Germany seized Czechoslovakia 1939 – Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact Sept 1, 1939 – Germany invaded Poland 1939 – France and Great Britain declare war on Germany

5 The U.S. and Japan Japan seized Southern Indochina (including Vietnam) in 1941 FDR froze all Japanese assets in the U.S. and placed an embargo on Japan U.S. demanded that Japan remove all forces from China and Indochina Japan approved an attack on the U.S. on December 1


7 The Attack on Pearl Harbor
U.S. believed Japan would attack in Malaysia or the Philippines Surprise attack on Pearl Harbor came on Sunday, December 7, 1941 2,323 servicemen killed, 1,100 wounded 150 aircraft, 8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 3 destroyers sunk or damaged 3 aircraft carriers not in port

8 Battleship Row at Pearl Harbor


10 The USS Arizona burned for two days.

11 FDR signs the declaration of war against Japan.

12 World War II: Allied Strategies
Main Idea: The Allies postponed an invasion of western Europe until Italy was secured. Meanwhile, in the Pacific, the Allies used the strategy of “island hopping” to get closer to the main Japanese islands.

13 EUROPEAN STRATEGY 3 days after the U.S. declared war on Japan, Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S. The Allied strategy was get Hitler first, then Japan The Allies defeated Germany in North Africa (Operation Torch) by 1943 Italy surrendered in June 1944


15 Defeat of Germany The Soviets moved into Eastern Europe in March 1944
Allies invaded Normandy on D-Day, June 6, 1944 (Operation Overlord) Paris was liberated by August In December the Germans drove the Allies back in Belgium in the Battle of the Bulge American and Soviet forces met in Germany in April, 1945; Germany surrendered on May 7

16 Battle of the Bulge

17 Eisenhower giving instructions to paratroopers on D-Day

18 Troops landing on Omaha beach on D-Day

19 Strategy in the Pacific
Battle of Midway: Admiral Nimitz defeated a superior Japanese fleet and stopped the Japanese advance in the Pacific (June 1942). 4 Japanese aircraft carriers were sunk Island Hopping: major Japanese islands were bypassed and air bases were established on smaller islands (started in1943)


21 The USS Yorktown under attack at Midway

22 The beginning of the end for Japan
Leyte Gulf (Oct. 1944): Most of Japan’s naval fleet defeated. Japan begins to use kamikaze attacks. Iwo Jima (Feb. 1945): Heavily fortified; enabled the U.S. to bomb Tokyo Okinawa (April-June 1945): 50,000 American casualties; Japan’s remaining defenses destroyed.

23 Marines carry the flag under fire at Iwo Jima


25 Kamikaze Attack

26 Kamikaze Attack

Main Idea: Despite discrimination, ethnic groups contributed significantly to the Allied victory in WWII. Navajo Code Talkers played a vital role at Iwo Jima

28 Tuskegee Airmen: African-American Squadron won two distinguished unit citations for fighting the Germans

29 442nd Regimental Combat Team: Japanese-American unit that served in Italy and N. Africa, became the most decorated unit in U.S. history

30 FDR’s Foreign Policy and Wartime Conferences
Main Idea: The U.S., Great Britain and Russia planned wartime and post-war strategies at several conferences from 1941 to 1945.

31 FDR’s FOUR FREEDOMS shaped his foreign policy
Freedom From Fear Freedom From Want

32 Freedom of Speech Freedom of Worship

33 The Atlantic Charter Meeting
In Aug 1941 FDR and Churchill met secretly to plan for the post-war world and created an 8-point document that became the foundation for the United Nations

In January, 1943 FDR and Churchill rendezvoused in Casablanca to develop a strategy to satisfy Stalin who was complaining that the Allies were delaying the opening of a 2nd front in Europe. It was the first time a U.S. president ever left the country during a war. The conference's Casablanca Declaration called for the Allies to seek the unconditional surrender of the Axis Powers. It also called for Allied aid to the Soviet Union, the invasion of Sicily and Italy, and the recognition of joint leadership of the Free French by de Gaulle and Giraud. Also decided during the Casablanca Conference was that there would be no "across channel invasion" in Instead of invading Europe across the English Channel, an invasion into Sicily and then Italy would take place.

35 Casablanca Conference, Jan. 1943
FDR and Churchill met in French Morocco (Stalin declined invitation) Planned for the invasion of Sicily and Italy (Operation Torch had begun in the summer of 1942) Decided to invade France in 1944 Demanded "unconditional surrender“ from Axis powers

36 At Casablanca Churchill insisted that FDR go to Marrakech and watch the sun set over the Atlas Mountains. Churchill made a painting of the scene and presented it to FDR.

37 Teheran Conference, Dec. 1943
The Big Three (FDR, Stalin, Churchill) Coordinated the Soviet offensive with the Allied invasion of France Stalin committed to enter the war against Japan

38 Yalta Conference, Feb. 1945 The Big 3 discussed plans for post-war Europe Germany would be divided into occupation zones (beginning of the Cold War) Soviets agreed to enter the war against Japan 3 months after Germany surrendered and to hold free elections in Poland



41 Potsdam Conference, July 1945
Truman (US), Stalin (USSR), Atlee (GB) Germany would be demilitarized Korea would be divided Nazi criminals would be tried at Nuremburg Told Japan to surrender unconditionally or be destroyed Truman learned of the successful testing of the atom bomb (kept it secret from Stalin)

42 Constitutional Issues and the Home Front
Main Ideas: The civil rights of Japanese-Americans were violated during the war. The war influenced the development of the civil rights movement. The War began a trend towards big government and more intervention in personal lives. 4. New weapons and scientific developments helped the Allies win the war.

43 Japanese-American Internment
Executive Order #9066: FDR ordered Japanese-Americans living in CA, OR, AZ and WA to relocate to isolated camps 110,000 sent to 10 camps Korematsu v. U.S.: 1944, Supreme Court upheld internment In 1988 the government apologized and paid reparations to survivors.

44 Relocation order for the City and County of San Francisco


46 Location of camps

47 Demographic Changes Women = 35% of work force but earned only 60% of what men earned Worked in untraditional jobs (“Rosie the Riveter”) Lost their jobs after the war ended 43 cities outside the South doubled their African-American population Racial tension became a national issue Defense industries in the West led to population shifts to the “sunbelt”


49 Pictures from Detroit riots, 1943
Worst riots of the decade; FDR sent federal troops; 9 whites, 25 blacks killed.


51 Demographic Changes “Sunbelt” population doubled because of electronics and aerospace industries CA became the most populous state Cities lost population to the suburbs “White Flight” Levittown Baby Boom Birthrate peaked in 1957; declining ever since Americans became more mobile, an average of 30 million people have moved every year since 1945. The region known as the Sunbelt experienced the biggest jump in population. The increase in the Sunbelt doubled that in the Frostbelt (the industrial NE). The Rustbelt refers to the industrial Ohio Valley which suffered a loss of industry. CA became the most populous state with one out of every 8 Americans living here. New jobs included the CA electronics industry, the aerospace industry in Florida and Texas and the huge military installations in the West. White Flight was the move out of the cities to the suburbs. This was due partly to the availability of home loans from the Federal Housing Authority and the Veterans Administration and the standardization of the housing industry. The FHA exacerbated the problem of white flight by limiting loans to African-Americans claiming they were risky loans. The FHA also would not loan to other minority groups who were “unharmonious racial or nationality groups”. One of the earliest suburban development was Levittown on Long Island, New York, built in the 1940s. The baby boom is the most dramatic post-war demographic change. 50 million children were born by the end of the 1950s. The birth rate increased until it crested in 1957 and has been declining ever since. In 1973 the birth rate dropped lower than the rate necessary to maintain existing population figures. This population bubble has had an important effect on American culture and economics and it will severely test the social security system in the next few decades.

52 Civil Rights During the War
Phillip Randolph (“Father of the Civil Rights Movement”) cancelled a protest march on Washington at FDR’s request in 1941 FDR established the FEPC (Fair Employment Practices Commission) James Farmer established Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 1942 Truman ended segregation of the armed forces in 1948 In 1949 a federal law prohibited discrimination in civil service jobs

53 Phillip Randolph at the Lincoln Memorial

54 Growth of Government FDR increased the power of the president by establishing new agencies WPB (War Production Board) regulated the use of raw materials OPA (Office of Price Administration) froze consumer prices and set up a system of rationing Helped control inflation Controversial because it limited what people could buy

55 Posters from the OPA helped build support for rationing

56 Major Scientific Developments
Office of Scientific Research and Development coordinated development of new weapons jet fighters, bombers, rocket guns, radar, sonar, proximity fuse U.S. Army developed the atomic bomb (Manhattan Project) Penicillin and Sulfa drugs helped save lives

57 End of the War Truman decided to use the atomic bomb because he believed it would end the war quicker and save American lives Hiroshima and Nagasaki The Marshall Plan provided economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild


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