Presentation on theme: "The ozone hole is a completely different phenomenon to global warming!"— Presentation transcript:
1 The ozone hole is a completely different phenomenon to global warming! There are links between them.
2 Links between Global Warming and Climate Change Summary:The ozone hole is caused by ozone depleting chemicals in the atmosphere, which have been produced by industry, for example CFCs.One link is that CFCs are also 'greenhouse gasses'. Enhanced global warming is a probable consequence of increasing amounts of 'greenhouse gasses', such as carbon dioxide and methane, in the atmosphere.Although the surface of the earth warms, higher up the atmosphere cools, thus increasing the area where polar stratospheric clouds can form. This makes a larger area susceptible to ozone depletion and provides another link between the two issues.
4 Ozone Loss Central Questions & Key Concepts Ozone depletion and global warming are two very different things!How are human activities affecting the ozone layer?What can humans do about changes in the ozone layer?
5 Ozone A form of oxygen in which three atoms of oxygen occur together. Produced in photochemical reactions involving sunlight, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and diatomic oxygen.Chemically active and has a short average lifetime in the atmosphere.Forms a natural layer high in the atmosphere that protects us from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.A pollutant when present in the lower atmosphere.
7 Ultraviolet Radiation and Ozone Ozone Shield: Stratospheric ozone layer that absorbs ultraviolet radiationMovie Take notes!
8 Measurement of Stratospheric Ozone Dobson Unit (DU)Commonly used to measure the concentration of ozone.
9 Production of Ozone in the Stratosphere photo dissociation of diatomic oxygenD. Ozone is producedC. single oxygen atom combines with O2B. Two single oxygen atoms
10 Average Antarctic Minimum Ozone Concentration (1990-2005)
11 Why is There Seasonal Thinning of Ozone over the Anatarctic? 1984- researchers discovered % of ozone in upper stratosphere over Antarctica was being destroyed1987- “smoking gun”-CFC’s primarily cause of ozone thinningPolar vortex- huge swirling mass of very cold air that is isolated from the rest of the atmosphere until the sun returns a month later
12 Polar Stratospheric Clouds Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs)Ozone destroying clouds that form in the stratosphere during the polar winterChlorine Nitrate (cl catalyzes ozone destruction) (ClONO2)Nitric acid (HNO3)TAKE NOTES!
13 Average Change in Concentration of Stratospheric Ozone (1970-2002) by Latitude Ozone reduction varies most in the AntarcticHighest concentrations of O3 are found here naturallyConcentrations at the equator are nearly constant.Lowest concentrations are found at the equator
14 Size of the Antarctic Ozone Hole The Ozone hole has, in general, been increasing in size over the last two decades. At times the Ozone holehas extended over 25 million square kilometers, an area one hundred times larger than the United Kingdom and equivalent to one sixth of the total world land mass.This graph above shows the minimum Ozone (measured in Dobson units) detected over the Antarctic. It shows that ozone levels have been decreasing over the last two decades.
16 Ozone Depletion and CFCs Ozone depleted due to emission of CFCsCFCs are stable and have a long residence time in the atmosphereIn stratosphere, release chlorine and enter into catalytic chain reaction- depletes ozoneMore UV radiation reaches lower atmosphere“Scientists discover a link between CFCs and ozone layer depletion.”
19 Why Should We Be Worried about Ozone Depletion? Reasons for Concern “If the ozone layer depletes, more harmful UV-B radiation will reach the earth through the damaged ozone layer.”Less Ozone Causes:Immune system suppressionIncrease in acid depositionLower crop yields and decline in productivity
20 Why Should We Be Worried… Life in the Ultraviolet Zone “More UV-B radiation means more skin cancers, more diseases and eye cataracts, less yield from plants, less productivity from oceans, damage to plastics...”Less Ozone Also Causes:increased incidence and severity of sunburnmore cataractsmore skin cancerMore About Skin Cancer & Cataractsincreasing in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina & Chile because the ozone layer is thin several months a year in those places
21 Management IssuesKey issue is whether ozone depletion is natural or human-inducedMontreal ProtocolCollection and Reuse of CFCsSubstitutes for CFCsHFCs and HCFCsShort-Term Adaptation to Ozone Depletion
22 Solutions: Protecting the Ozone Layer Montreal ProtocolTreaty created in 1987 by 36 nationsSays- cut emissions of CFC’s into the atmosphere by about 35% between 1989 & 2000Met 3 more timesMet in 1997 in MontrealAdopted a protocol accelerating the phase out of key ozone depleting chemicalsCFC production fell by 85%Other Legislation/Meetings (see handout)
23 Solutions: Protecting the Ozone Layer Stop producing all ozone depleting substancesCFC substitutesHCFC’s- contain fewer chlorine atoms per molecule than CFC’sHFC’s- contain Fluorine but no chlorineHC’s- hydrocarbons - useful as coolants & insulating foam in refrigerators
24 Solutions: Protecting the Ozone Layer TechnofixesPhysicist Alfred Wong- each year wants to launch blimps football-fields long.Blimps are radio-controlled and would contain electrical wires that would inject negatively charged electrons to the stratosphere when exposed to high voltages (see article)Others suggest using lasers to blast CFC’s out/ but no one knows how it will affect climate, birds, or planes
25 Will the International Treaty to Slow Ozone Depletion Work? still a black-market of CFC’ssome countries cheatingprevention is the best way to deal with global environmental problems
26 "Do not release CFCs - recycle them!” What Can You Do?"Do not release CFCs - recycle them!”“Demand ozone friendly products.”