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Depression. Militarism. Quest for Empire

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Presentation on theme: "Depression. Militarism. Quest for Empire"— Presentation transcript:

1 Depression. Militarism. Quest for Empire
World War II Depression. Militarism. Quest for Empire

2 Outlawing War? 1928 The Kellogg-Briand Pact: 60 nations signed the agreement to outlaw war Impossible to enforce

3 The Japanese move for empire
Japanese military became more influential in government in the 20s Prime minister Osachi Hamaguchi was assassinated and it caused a power vacuum. 2 years later, the military dominated the Japanese government

4 You have insulted my honor
Japan controlled Korea and had a sphere of influence in China Manchuria China = raw materials for Japanese Industry and Military Needed an excuse for war Took Manchuria in a matter of weeks

5 The League of Nations reacts
The League condemned Japan’s actions Japan withdrew from the League Japan was encouraged to make more claims for all of China and East Asia and the Pacific By 1939 Japan controlled ¼ of China and all the seaports

6 Italy and the Ethiopian Powerhouse
Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy in 1922 Fascist dictator Goals: improve the Italian economy and make a modern Roman empire Ethiopia became his target Triggered border dispute between Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland

7 Where is Ethiopia Anyways?
Help Us League! Where is Ethiopia Anyways? Ethiopia appealed to the League of Nations to mediate the conflict with Italy The League didn’t have an army Italy invaded a year later and took over the country The League put economic sanctions on Italy Ethiopia became part of the Italian Empire

8 Teaching Moment: Axis Lessons Learned
Most countries didn’t intervene because they were afraid of war and had intense economic problems at home Italy and Japan could continue acts of aggression without intervention

9 The Spanish Civil War After WWI, political instability affected Spain
1923 coup d’etat Second Republic (commies) in 1931 Reforms to help the poor acquire land Workers received shorter hours, higher wages, and unionization

10 Nationalists and Loyalists
The Conservatives Supported a Fascist party called the Falange Used terrorism to keep the power of the army, landowners, and the church Popular front: group of socialists and communists February 1936 Summer of 1936 Falange Uprisings cause the Spanish Civil War Fascist rebels led by Francisco Franco called themselves nationalists Supporters of the republic were called Loyalists

11 Neighbors help out The Spanish Civil War became a minor European War
Germany and Italy supported a Fascist Spain Germany and Italy sent military units to help the Nationalists The Soviet Union helped the Loyalists with planes, technicians, and military advisors

12 If you won’t help cowardly nations, your people will
International Brigades – volunteers from Free nations in Europe and America The French and British feared fighting would spread all over Europe

13 The Nationalists Win Nationalists defeat the Loyalists in the Spring of 1939 Franco set up a Fascist Dictatorship Spain’s old ruling class, the clergy, army, and landowners were restored to power

14 The Cost of the Spanish Civil War
War dead estimated between 500,000 to 1,000,000 Spain became more divided as the Civil War wore on.

15 Adolf’s Turn 1933 Hitler announces to the world he will rearm his country and leaves the League of Nations March 1936; marched his troops into the neutral buffer zone under League of Nations control - the Rhineland - violating the Treaty of Versailles October 1936 a union between Hitler and Mussolini called the Rome-Berlin Axis Called themselves the Axis Powers Japan and Germany decided to work together and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact to stop the spread of Communism - Italy signs later hide their aggressions under the guise of fighting communism

16 Join or Die!! You are German! And buy my book, 4 million sold
Anschluss Join or Die!! You are German! And buy my book, 4 million sold Nazi Party was formed in Austria in the late 1920s 1930s, the conservative government was doing little to prevent a Nazi takeover 1938 threats from Hitler and Mussolini encouraged the government of Austria to include Nazis in their government Austrian chancellor had made an agreement with Hitler to join Germany but regretted it. Wanted the citizens to vote on it - Hitler refused Hitler took Austria with force 1938, Austria was made part of the Third Reich - violating the Treaty of Versailles What am I smoking? I think I want to be German. I can do acts of evil because I have no facial features

17 Sudetenland 3 million Germans lived on the German border of the Western Part of Czechoslovakia called the Sudetenland Includes a chain of mountains that provided a natural defense; heavily fortified Many Germans living in Czechoslovakia wanted to join Germany, Nazi Party becomes strong Riots break out, Czech Army declared martial law Hitler announced he would invade to protect the German people living there Czechoslovakia would be defenseless against Germany I really shouldn’t have diced those Onions before the Nazi Parade. Anyways… Heil!

18 We will give you Sudetenland for peace in our time!
I want no Checks! We will give you Sudetenland for peace in our time! Appeasement As tensions grew in Europe, Hitler held the Munich Conference on September 29, 1938 Attended by Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and Edouard Daladier the French Premier - accepted the demand that Sudetenland remain with Germany Appeasement - giving something (land) for peace; the British and French were not ready to fight

19 After the Conference Chamberlain “Peace in Our Time”
French would not defend the Czechs March 1939, the Germans invaded Czechoslovakia Mussolini invaded Albania in April 1939 The League of Nations was helpless

20 Is Ignoring the Problem Helping?
I do not trust Western Power. But I am cool like the Fonz, AAAYYE Comrade? Is Ignoring the Problem Helping? After Czechoslovakia, the French and British knew they were going to have to stand up to the fascists Began to rearm their nations France and Britain made an agreement to protect Poland if Germany attacked The French and British were trying to get the Soviets to join them in an alliance against Germany The Soviets did not trust the western powers Western Powers were fearful of communism I'll think about it We should help defend Poland from German attack

21 “Deal” or “No deal?” The Deal that Never Was The Soviets wanted a deal with the west that guaranteed the independence of Poland, Finland, and the Baltic countries Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania Wanted a military alliance with these Baltic countries The Baltics didn’t want the Soviet Army in their countries to fight the Germans No agreement reached No Deal, Comrade! No Deal!!

22 The Non-Agression Pact
The Soviets were negotiating with the Germans at the same time August 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union would not attack each other, remain neutral if the other went to war Hitler wanted to make sure the Soviets would remain neutral, Soviets could have time to prepare Secretly, the deal included dividing up Poland, Soviets had the Baltics and Bessarabia

23 Danzig and the Polish Corridor
World War II finally started when the Germans invaded Poland Germany wanted the Port City of Danzig Poland and Germany had rights to use the busy port on the Baltic Sea After the war, the Poles were given a strip of land (The Polish Corridor) to get access to Danzig, this used to be part of German Prussia Many Germans (6,000,000) still lived in the Polish Corridor 1933

24 World War II Officially begins
September 1, 1939, Hitler Annexed Danzig to the Third Reich His Luftwaffe began a massive air strike on Poland Tanks cruised across the border and quickly made it to the Polish capital of Warsaw; blitzkrieg Poles were attacked with the modern German weaponry and total war Poles fought bravely Great Britain and France finally decided they could no longer stand German aggression Declared war on Germany

25 The “Phony” War German attack into Poland introduced the blitzkrieg or “Lightning Attack”; Attack with great speed and force Poland surrenders in a month France moved its troops to its chain of fortifications called the Maginot Line to prepare to fight Germanny The British landed on the Northern Coast of France and the navy blockaded German ports Germans moved their troops to their fortifications they had built at the Siegfried Line in the Rhineland A Couple attacks on British warships For the most part, there was an increase in troop movement, and arms production, but no fighting The newspapers began to call this the “Phony War” in western Europe

26 The Soviet Attack The Soviet Army built up on the eastern border of Poland. They entered Poland in September 17, 1939 The Soviets took control of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia November 30, 1939, the Soviets attacked Finland Finns appealed to the League of Nations; Soviets expelled for being an aggressor nation Finland loses in March 1940

27 Norway and Denmark April 9, 1940, Germany invades Norway and Denmark
Nazi Collaborator Quisling Norwegian Nazi Party leader provided information to the Nazis before the war and aided the attackers Germany gained outlets to the sea, good submarine bases and airfields Shipping to Britain and France was in danger of attack Great Britain knew now, that they were in danger, in the line of attack. Winston Churchill became Prime Minister of Great Britain

28 The Low Countries The Germans invaded the low countries (The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg) on May 10, 1940 These countries were taken by the end of May Put Germany in the position to go around the Maginot Line German armored units pushed west to the English Channel and cut off the British troops on the coast from the main body of the French Army The Bri

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