1) What was needed to sustain the work of Alexander III? A like-minded man keen to involve himself in the hard work of government to succeed
2) How was Nicholas described (5)? He was a man ill-equipped to continue on the path of his father, Alexander III. Inability to make decisions Unwillingness to engage in politics His lack of organisational skills His weakness and obstinacy
3) What were Nicholas thoughts on democracy (2)? Was unwilling to make any moves towards constitutional government Believed that democracy would bring about the collapse of the Empire
4) What was the desperate need in Russia at the turn of the twentieth century? MODERNISATION!
5) Why was there this need? (2) 1.To be a great political power in Europe 2.To increase the wealth of Russia
6) Why was it difficult? (4) 1.Difficult to maintain Tsarist institutions as they were so traditional 2.Fear that it would cause social tensions 3.Needed a more educated workforce 4.Fear of rise of middle class
7) Who was in charge of Russias modernisation? Sergei Witte
8) What problems did he face? (3) Russia had a small business class Majority of peasants did not have complete freedom of movement The Russian Economy did not have sufficient funds
9) What industry did he rely on heavily to do this? THE RAILWAYS!
10) Which two sources of finance did he use to fund this? (2) Foreign loans Taxes on the peasants
11) What industries benefitted from the Great Spurt under Witte? (2) Raw materials Military
12) Where did Wittes plan fail? (2) Still lagged behind other Great Powers Poor living and working conditions further isolated working class and peasants.