Presentation on theme: "EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT….. THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH"— Presentation transcript:
1 EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT….. THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH
2 “faithfully execute the laws of the United States.” The Executive BranchArticle II“faithfully execute the laws of the United States.”Created office of the President & Vice PresidentREQUIREMENTS1. Must be at least 35 years of age2. Must be a natural born citizen3. Must have lived in the U.S. for 14 years*****Although not specifically states, the requirements for the Vice President are the same as the requirements for the President
3 The President must be a natural born citizen for what reason. A The President must be a natural born citizen for what reason? A. To insure he has an American education B. In order to prevent any outside preferences and priorities C. So he/she speaks English D. To make sure he has political experience
4 The Executive Branch POWERS- Commander in Chief Importance: Civilian leader of the militaryPrevents military dictatorship within historyTHIS DOES NOT MEAN THE PRESIDENT DECLARES WAR!!!!!!!*WAR POWERS ACTPresidents who have used this power- Lincoln, T.Roosevelt, Truman, Johnson, Nixon
5 The Executive Branch POWERS- Pardons & Reprieves Importance: Check on the Judicial branch If Judiciary unfairly punishes criminal, President can fix abusePARDON= Official forgiveness of crimes committedREPRIEVE= Cutting short a sentenceFamous pardons: Eugene Debs (Harding); FORD PARDONS NIXONSome are controversial because they are done at end of administrationPardons & Reprieves are final, but if done with illegal intentions, President is subject to penalty (Clinton)
7 The Executive Branch POWERS-Veto Power Importance: Check on Legislative Branch President becomes involved in the creation of legislation with this threatPower of veto demonstrates power of the office or lack thereof (if overridden)Total Vetoes-2550Total Overrides-106Percentage of vetoes overridden- 4% (Line Item Veto???
8 The Executive Branch POWERS- Treaty making Importance: Allows President to be major player within foreign policy arenaThis power is shared with Senate, who must ratify the treaty by 2/3 majorityFamous Treaties: Treaty of Versailles (not passed), NAFTA, creation of NATOTotal # of treaties rejected by Senate- 21
9 The Executive Branch POWERS- Appointments Importance: Check on judiciary and important in creation and executing policyVery rarely is President’s choice declinedSimple majority vote neededFamous appoint battles: -John Ashcroft -Clarence Thomas -Robert Bork27 Supreme Court nominees have been rejected (151)9 presidential cabinet appointees have been rejectedRecess Appointments????
10 The Executive Branch POWERS- State of the Union Importance: Public persuasionAllows President to announce policy goals and direction of countryDoes not have to be done in person From Jefferson to T. Roosevelt, done by letter; Wilson begins making it in person
11 The Executive Branch POWERS- Calling Sessions of Congress President may call special sessions of Congress for important mattersCheck on the Legislative Branch
12 The Executive Branch INFORMAL POWERS Executive Orders/Agreements Not a formal powerExec. Order: acts with the power of a lawExec. Agreement: acts with the power of a treatyDifferences: 1)these do not go through Congress and 2) does not have to be followed by next PresidentCan be ruled unconstitutional by courts
14 The Executive Branch The President- The Bully Pulpit “The job of the president is not one of command but one of persuasion.”“The job of the president is to persuade people “to do the things they ought to have the sense enough to do without my persuading them.”- Harry Truman3 major audiences- DC politicians, Party politicians, General publicGoal: Turn public support into influence
15 Executive Privilege •Refers to the assertion made by the President or other executive branch officials when they refuse togive Congress, the courts, or private partiesinformation or records which have been requested orsubpoenaed, or when they order governmentwitnesses not to testify before Congress.•The assertion is based on the constitutional doctrineof separation of powers, is always controversial,subject to interpretation, and oftenU.S. v Nixon- Famous case dealing with Executive Privilege
16 Executive Branch Checks and Balances THE EXECUTIVE BRANCHTHE LEGISLATIVE BRANCHTHE JUDICIAL BRANCHCan veto lawsCan call special sessions of CongressNegotiates TreatiesExecutive PrivilegeAppoints JudgesCan pardon and reprieve criminals
17 The Executive Branch Other Interesting Facts & Info Compensation •Salary: $400,000 (upgraded from $200,000) •Free Housing (The White House) •Free Transportation (Air Force One + Limo service) • Fringe Benefits: Free Health Care, Secret Service •Pension: $183,500/year for life, Spouse: $20,000/year
18 The Executive Branch Amendments Dealing w/ President Amendment 12: Electoral college shall have separate votes for President and Vice PresidentAmendment 20: Inauguration Day: Jan. 20, if President elect dies before taking office, Vice President elect shall become new president
19 The Executive Branch Amendments Dealing w/ President Amendment 22: Known as the FDR amendment, no president shall serve more then 2 terms or 10 years in officeAmendment 25: Known as the JFK amendment,1) when vacancy opens in Vice President office, President may appoint new one w/ consent from both houses,2) President may temp give up position by written letter to SOTH & Pres. Pro Temp (must write new letter to resume power)3) Vice President and majority of cabinet can write letter to remove President, or 2/3 of Congress can declare the President unable to rule
20 How Do We Elect Our Presidents? Primaries, Caucuses, and the Electoral College
21 Primaries & CaucusesPrimaries and Caucuses are how the parties select their candidateDifference between P’s and C’s2012 Primary/Caucus scheduleOpen vs Closed vs Blanket PrimariesThis is seen as more democratic than the old system of letting party bosses select candidatesProblems: Frontloading, TV/Media, $
22 The Election of the President of the U.S. The Electoral CollegeIs it a necessary evil or an outdated institution????
23 The Electoral College WHAT IS IT? WHY HAVE IT?-Gives power to small states -Check upon illiterate peopleWHAT IS IT?•Every state is allotted votes based upon # of Representatives and Senators. This vote actually chooses the President.HOW DOES IT WORK?•State Electors are to vote for the candidate which wins the stateException: “Faithless Elector”- most states (26) have laws against•Candidates who win the state win the whole allotment of votes (except in Maine & Nebraska)= “Winner Take All•270 electoral votes to win (if no winner, election to the House)
28 Historical Elections- Problems w/ the Electoral College Election of Jefferson vs Burr- No majority -Election goes to the House -Result: 12th AmendmentElection of 1824 J.Q. Adams vs Andrew Jackson -No majority -Election goes to the HouseElection of 1888 & 2000 Benj. Harrison & George W Bush become President even though they lose popular electionsElection of 1876 Sam Tilden (D) 4,284,020 Rutherford Hayes (R) 4,036,572How did he win?Tilden- 203 Hayes- 166How did he winCongressional review of election ( 3 states-19 Elec votes)Committee- 9 Rep vs 8 DemCommittee agrees to change outcome in each state
29 Is the Electoral College Fair? California- 55 electoral votes-10.2% of electoral votes-12% of populationTexas- 34 electoral votes-6.3% of electoral votes-7.4% of populationNew York- 31 electoral votes-5.8% of electoral votes- 6.7% of populationFlorida- 27 electoral votes- 5% of electoral votes- 5.7% of populationIllinois- 21 electoral votes- 3.9% of electoral votes- 4.4% of populationAlaska -Delaware-DC-Montana-North/South Dakota-VermontAll have 3 electoral votes (.6% of the electoral votes)But make up only .2% of the population
30 The President and the Media Does the media impact politics? Does politics affect the media?
35 The Executive Branch- The President The Main Roles of the Modern President Are presidents unable to govern effectively because public expectations are too high?1. The President= Chief of State2. The President= Chief Executive3. The President= Commander-In-Chief4. The President= Chief Diplomat5. The President= Chief Legislator6. The President= Party Leader7. The President= Popular Leader
36 The Executive Branch The President & Fundraising General Fundraising Rules How much can A) individuals give political candidates per election B) PACs give political candidates?How much can an individual give a political party in donations?Can Presidential candidates receive government money for campaign spending? Are there any limitations? What are the requirements to get money?Are there disclosure rules when donating money?
37 The Executive Branch The President & Fundraising General Fundraising Rules What is the outcome of the following court cases dealing with campaign finance?Buckley v. Valeo (1973)Austin v. Michigan State Chamber of Commerce (1990) McConnell v. FEC (2003)Randall v. Sorrell (2006)Federal Elections Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life (2007) Davis v. FEC (2008)Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010)
38 The Federal Bureaucracy Is the Government ofThe United StatesTOO BIG???
39 The Federal Bureaucracy Major purpose: to administer and implement programs and services, regulate societyAgencies come up with policy ideas, deliver servicesThe U.S. bureaucracy million employeesBroken into 5 major parts -Cabinet Departments -Independent Executive Agencies -Regulatory Agencies -Government Corporations -EOP (Executive Office of the Pres.)
40 Executive Office of the President The Executive Office of the President is made up of White House offices and agencies. These offices help develop and implement the policy and programs of the president.National Security Council (NSC), Office of Management and Budget (OMB)Senior staff within the Executive Office of the President have the title Assistant to the President, second-level staff have the title Deputy Assistant to the President, and third-level staff have the title Special Assistant to the President.
41 Cabinet Departments15 total department of various size, status, visibility, and functionMajor service organizations of federal government; carries out broad tasks, provides necessary services, acts as experts in policy areasState- Most prestigious, only 25,000 employeesDefense- Largest department; 750,000 civilians, 1.5 million military personnel, The PentagonHHS- largest budgetIndustrial Revolution created economic pressure groups, government responded; demonstrates power of “Clientele Groups”Farmers- created Dept of Agriculture in 1889Business & Labor- created Commerce and Labor Depts. in 1903Each department has smaller, well known units
42 Depts and their Famous parts Home. Sec- INS, Secret Serv., Coast Guard,Justice- FBI, Bureau of Prisons, Marshalls, ATF, DEAHHS-NIH, CDC,Medicare, Medicaid, FDAAgriculture- Forest ServiceCommerce- NOAA, Census, PatentsTransportation- FAA, FHWA, NTSB
43 Independent Executive Agencies Narrower areas of responsibilityExamples- NASA, CIA, Peace Corp, Civil Rights CommissionAgency heads are appointed by President; not in cabinet
44 Regulatory AgenciesHave legislative, executive, and judicial functions (are exceptions to the ideal of sep. of power);created to regulate important aspects of of our economyCommissioners serve a fixed, long and staggered term; appointed by President and approved by Senate (Cannot be removed at will by President)
45 Regulatory Agencies Examples: EPA: regulates our environment for clean water, air, noise, waste, and other emissionsSEC: regulates the buying /selling of all stocks, bonds and other securitiesFCC: Federal Communications Commission -regulates all forms of communications from TV, radio, telegraph, internet
46 Government Corporations Examples:The Post Office- 800,000 employees; receives some funding from governmentFDIC- Federal Deposit Insurance CompanyAMTRAK
47 The Growing Bureaucracy 1800- only 3,000 employeesBy ,000 federal employeesUnder FDR- 1.2 million employeesJobs originally given for patronage, Pendleton Act changes manner of giving jobs- merit/civil service systemEra of Smaller GovernmentReagan toys with idea of eliminating Energy, Transportation, and Education Depts.Clinton shrinks federal government by 100,000