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Presentation on theme: "EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT….. THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH"— Presentation transcript:


2 “faithfully execute the laws of the United States.”
The Executive Branch Article II “faithfully execute the laws of the United States.” Created office of the President & Vice President REQUIREMENTS 1. Must be at least 35 years of age 2. Must be a natural born citizen 3. Must have lived in the U.S. for 14 years *****Although not specifically states, the requirements for the Vice President are the same as the requirements for the President

3 The President must be a natural born citizen for what reason. A
The President must be a natural born citizen for what reason? A. To insure he has an American education B. In order to prevent any outside preferences and priorities C. So he/she speaks English D. To make sure he has political experience

4 The Executive Branch POWERS- Commander in Chief
Importance: Civilian leader of the military Prevents military dictatorship within history THIS DOES NOT MEAN THE PRESIDENT DECLARES WAR!!!!!!! *WAR POWERS ACT Presidents who have used this power- Lincoln, T.Roosevelt, Truman, Johnson, Nixon

5 The Executive Branch POWERS- Pardons & Reprieves
Importance: Check on the Judicial branch If Judiciary unfairly punishes criminal, President can fix abuse PARDON= Official forgiveness of crimes committed REPRIEVE= Cutting short a sentence Famous pardons: Eugene Debs (Harding); FORD PARDONS NIXON Some are controversial because they are done at end of administration Pardons & Reprieves are final, but if done with illegal intentions, President is subject to penalty (Clinton)

6 Top 5 Presidents w/ Pardons-Rep

7 The Executive Branch POWERS-Veto Power
Importance: Check on Legislative Branch President becomes involved in the creation of legislation with this threat Power of veto demonstrates power of the office or lack thereof (if overridden) Total Vetoes-2550 Total Overrides-106 Percentage of vetoes overridden- 4% ( Line Item Veto???

8 The Executive Branch POWERS- Treaty making
Importance: Allows President to be major player within foreign policy arena This power is shared with Senate, who must ratify the treaty by 2/3 majority Famous Treaties: Treaty of Versailles (not passed), NAFTA, creation of NATO Total # of treaties rejected by Senate- 21

9 The Executive Branch POWERS- Appointments
Importance: Check on judiciary and important in creation and executing policy Very rarely is President’s choice declined Simple majority vote needed Famous appoint battles: -John Ashcroft -Clarence Thomas -Robert Bork 27 Supreme Court nominees have been rejected (151) 9 presidential cabinet appointees have been rejected Recess Appointments????

10 The Executive Branch POWERS- State of the Union
Importance: Public persuasion Allows President to announce policy goals and direction of country Does not have to be done in person From Jefferson to T. Roosevelt, done by letter; Wilson begins making it in person

11 The Executive Branch POWERS- Calling Sessions of Congress
President may call special sessions of Congress for important matters Check on the Legislative Branch

12 The Executive Branch INFORMAL POWERS Executive Orders/Agreements
Not a formal power Exec. Order: acts with the power of a law Exec. Agreement: acts with the power of a treaty Differences: 1)these do not go through Congress and 2) does not have to be followed by next President Can be ruled unconstitutional by courts

13 Executive Order by President

14 The Executive Branch The President- The Bully Pulpit
“The job of the president is not one of command but one of persuasion.” “The job of the president is to persuade people “to do the things they ought to have the sense enough to do without my persuading them.”- Harry Truman 3 major audiences- DC politicians, Party politicians, General public Goal: Turn public support into influence

15 Executive Privilege •Refers to the assertion made by the President
or other executive branch officials when they refuse to give Congress, the courts, or private parties information or records which have been requested or subpoenaed, or when they order government witnesses not to testify before Congress. •The assertion is based on the constitutional doctrine of separation of powers, is always controversial, subject to interpretation, and often U.S. v Nixon- Famous case dealing with Executive Privilege

16 Executive Branch Checks and Balances
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH THE JUDICIAL BRANCH Can veto laws Can call special sessions of Congress Negotiates Treaties Executive Privilege Appoints Judges Can pardon and reprieve criminals

17 The Executive Branch Other Interesting Facts & Info
Compensation •Salary: $400,000 (upgraded from $200,000) •Free Housing (The White House) •Free Transportation (Air Force One + Limo service) • Fringe Benefits: Free Health Care, Secret Service •Pension: $183,500/year for life, Spouse: $20,000/year

18 The Executive Branch Amendments Dealing w/ President
Amendment 12: Electoral college shall have separate votes for President and Vice President Amendment 20: Inauguration Day: Jan. 20, if President elect dies before taking office, Vice President elect shall become new president

19 The Executive Branch Amendments Dealing w/ President
Amendment 22: Known as the FDR amendment, no president shall serve more then 2 terms or 10 years in office Amendment 25: Known as the JFK amendment, 1) when vacancy opens in Vice President office, President may appoint new one w/ consent from both houses, 2) President may temp give up position by written letter to SOTH & Pres. Pro Temp (must write new letter to resume power) 3) Vice President and majority of cabinet can write letter to remove President, or 2/3 of Congress can declare the President unable to rule

20 How Do We Elect Our Presidents?
Primaries, Caucuses, and the Electoral College

21 Primaries & Caucuses Primaries and Caucuses are how the parties select their candidate Difference between P’s and C’s 2012 Primary/Caucus schedule Open vs Closed vs Blanket Primaries This is seen as more democratic than the old system of letting party bosses select candidates Problems: Frontloading, TV/Media, $

22 The Election of the President of the U.S.
The Electoral College Is it a necessary evil or an outdated institution????

23 The Electoral College WHAT IS IT?
WHY HAVE IT? -Gives power to small states -Check upon illiterate people WHAT IS IT? •Every state is allotted votes based upon # of Representatives and Senators. This vote actually chooses the President. HOW DOES IT WORK? •State Electors are to vote for the candidate which wins the state Exception: “Faithless Elector”- most states (26) have laws against •Candidates who win the state win the whole allotment of votes (except in Maine & Nebraska)= “Winner Take All •270 electoral votes to win (if no winner, election to the House)


25 2008 Election Results

26 2000 Election In 2000, George W. Bush carried 2,439 counties to 674 for Sen. Al Gore. Bush lost the popular vote but won the election.

27 2004 Election

28 Historical Elections- Problems w/ the Electoral College
Election of Jefferson vs Burr- No majority -Election goes to the House -Result: 12th Amendment Election of 1824 J.Q. Adams vs Andrew Jackson -No majority -Election goes to the House Election of 1888 & 2000 Benj. Harrison & George W Bush become President even though they lose popular elections Election of 1876 Sam Tilden (D) 4,284,020 Rutherford Hayes (R) 4,036,572 How did he win? Tilden- 203 Hayes- 166 How did he win Congressional review of election ( 3 states-19 Elec votes) Committee- 9 Rep vs 8 Dem Committee agrees to change outcome in each state

29 Is the Electoral College Fair?
California- 55 electoral votes-10.2% of electoral votes-12% of population Texas- 34 electoral votes-6.3% of electoral votes-7.4% of population New York- 31 electoral votes-5.8% of electoral votes- 6.7% of population Florida- 27 electoral votes- 5% of electoral votes- 5.7% of population Illinois- 21 electoral votes- 3.9% of electoral votes- 4.4% of population Alaska -Delaware-DC-Montana-North/South Dakota-Vermont All have 3 electoral votes (.6% of the electoral votes) But make up only .2% of the population

30 The President and the Media
Does the media impact politics? Does politics affect the media?

31 Who are the mass media? Traditional media The “new media” Newspapers
Television Magazines Radio The “new media” Examples – INTERNET & CELL/SMART PHONE Characteristics- Mobile, includes traditional, searching, update immediately, national/inter Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 | 31

32 The media and public opinion
Do the media influence public opinion? Yes No Impact of newspapers Journalists may be liberal, but publishers are conservative Lack of competition Type of coverage Impact of television Decline of substantive coverage, rise of images and slogans SOUNDBITES Impact of “adversarial journalism” Impact of the internet Traditional sites vs. “Drudge” and blogs? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 | 32

33 Effects of the media on politics
A symbiotic relationship Roles of the media News Provider- Providing the facts Scorekeeper- Who is winning/Who is losing? Watchdog- What govt scandals have they uncovered? Gatekeeper- What do they cover/not cover? The nature of media influences Profit Agenda-setting Cost Candidate-centered campaigns WH manipulation of the media Negative coverage of Congress Far less coverage of Supreme Court than other branches Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 | 33

34 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
12 | 34

35 The Executive Branch- The President The Main Roles of the Modern President Are presidents unable to govern effectively because public expectations are too high? 1. The President= Chief of State 2. The President= Chief Executive 3. The President= Commander-In-Chief 4. The President= Chief Diplomat 5. The President= Chief Legislator 6. The President= Party Leader 7. The President= Popular Leader

36 The Executive Branch The President & Fundraising General Fundraising Rules
How much can A) individuals give political candidates per election B) PACs give political candidates? How much can an individual give a political party in donations? Can Presidential candidates receive government money for campaign spending? Are there any limitations? What are the requirements to get money? Are there disclosure rules when donating money?

37 The Executive Branch The President & Fundraising General Fundraising Rules
What is the outcome of the following court cases dealing with campaign finance? Buckley v. Valeo (1973) Austin v. Michigan State Chamber of Commerce (1990)  McConnell v. FEC (2003) Randall v. Sorrell (2006) Federal Elections Commission v. Wisconsin Right to Life (2007)  Davis v. FEC (2008) Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010)

38 The Federal Bureaucracy
Is the Government of The United States TOO BIG???

39 The Federal Bureaucracy
Major purpose: to administer and implement programs and services, regulate society Agencies come up with policy ideas, deliver services The U.S. bureaucracy million employees Broken into 5 major parts -Cabinet Departments -Independent Executive Agencies -Regulatory Agencies -Government Corporations -EOP (Executive Office of the Pres.)

40 Executive Office of the President
The Executive Office of the President is made up of White House offices and agencies. These offices help develop and implement the policy and programs of the president. National Security Council (NSC), Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Senior staff within the Executive Office of the President have the title Assistant to the President, second-level staff have the title Deputy Assistant to the President, and third-level staff have the title Special Assistant to the President.

41 Cabinet Departments 15 total department of various size, status, visibility, and function Major service organizations of federal government; carries out broad tasks, provides necessary services, acts as experts in policy areas State- Most prestigious, only 25,000 employees Defense- Largest department; 750,000 civilians, 1.5 million military personnel, The Pentagon HHS- largest budget Industrial Revolution created economic pressure groups, government responded; demonstrates power of “Clientele Groups” Farmers- created Dept of Agriculture in 1889 Business & Labor- created Commerce and Labor Depts. in 1903 Each department has smaller, well known units

42 Depts and their Famous parts
Home. Sec- INS, Secret Serv., Coast Guard, Justice- FBI, Bureau of Prisons, Marshalls, ATF, DEA HHS-NIH, CDC,Medicare, Medicaid, FDA Agriculture- Forest Service Commerce- NOAA, Census, Patents Transportation- FAA, FHWA, NTSB

43 Independent Executive Agencies
Narrower areas of responsibility Examples- NASA, CIA, Peace Corp, Civil Rights Commission Agency heads are appointed by President; not in cabinet

44 Regulatory Agencies Have legislative, executive, and judicial functions (are exceptions to the ideal of sep. of power);created to regulate important aspects of of our economy Commissioners serve a fixed, long and staggered term; appointed by President and approved by Senate (Cannot be removed at will by President)

45 Regulatory Agencies Examples:
EPA: regulates our environment for clean water, air, noise, waste, and other emissions SEC: regulates the buying /selling of all stocks, bonds and other securities FCC: Federal Communications Commission -regulates all forms of communications from TV, radio, telegraph, internet

46 Government Corporations
Examples: The Post Office- 800,000 employees; receives some funding from government FDIC- Federal Deposit Insurance Company AMTRAK

47 The Growing Bureaucracy
1800- only 3,000 employees By ,000 federal employees Under FDR- 1.2 million employees Jobs originally given for patronage, Pendleton Act changes manner of giving jobs- merit/civil service system Era of Smaller Government Reagan toys with idea of eliminating Energy, Transportation, and Education Depts. Clinton shrinks federal government by 100,000

48 Understanding Bureaucracies
Figure 15.5


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