Presentation on theme: "Semester II Review. Which of the following elements has the smallest first ionization energy: potassium or calcium? Which of the following has the smallest."— Presentation transcript:
Which of the following elements has the smallest first ionization energy: potassium or calcium? Which of the following has the smallest atomic radius: O or S? The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom is called the Ionization energy.
Semester II Review Atomic size generally decreases as you move left to right in a period. How does atomic radius change down a group in the periodic table?Increases How does ionization energy change as you move up and to right on the periodic table? Decreases up and increases to the right
Semester II Review Sheilding will increase as you go down a group. Sheilding will remain constant as you move left to right across a period. Electronegativity will decrease as you move down and to the left. Columns on the periodic table are known as groups or families. Rows on the table are known as periods.
Semester II Review Name the following compounds: –HBrHydrobromic acid (bromide) –NaOHSodium Hydroxide –FeOIron (II) Oxide –HNO 3 Nitric Acid (nitrate) –SO 3 Sulfur Trioxide (molecule all nonmetals) –Li 3 PO 4 Lithium Phosphate
Semester II Review Give the formula for the following compounds. –Carbonic acidH 2 CO 3 –Manganese (II) chlorideMnCl 2 –Calcium nitrideCa 3 N 2 –Hydrochloric acidHCl –Dinitrogen TetroxideN 2 O 4
Semester II Review For the following compound, draw its lewis structure, give the electron tally, hybridization, name of shape, bond angles, and determine if it is polar or not. SO 2
Semester II Review For the following compound, draw its lewis structure, give the electron tally, hybridization, name of shape, bond angles, and determine if it is polar or not. NH 3
Semester II Review For the following compound, draw its lewis structure, give the electron tally, hybridization, name of shape, bond angles, and determine if it is polar or not. SO 4 2-
SM II Review Complete, Balance, and Classify each Rxn 1. 2Al + 3S Al 2 S 3 2.NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO 3 3. C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O 4. 2H 2 O 2 H 2 + O 2 5. 2Li + Na 2 CO 3 2Na + Li 2 CO 3 In every chemical reaction, what item(s) is/are conserved? Mass and Atoms
SM II Review For a given chemical reaction, the theoretical yield is generally more than the actual yield The first step in most stoichiometry problems is to balance the equation.
SM II Review Hydrogen gas reacts with nitrogen gas to form ammonia gas. –Write and balance the equation – 3H 2 + N 2 2NH 3 –Determine the Limiting reactant if 3.50 g of hydrogen reacts with 42.0 g of nitrogen. –What is the theoretical yield of the above problem? 39.4 g NH 3 – What is the % yield if the reaction produced 15.3 g of ammonia. 38.8 %
What is the empirical formula of a compound that is 32.37 % Na, 22.58 % S, and 45.05 % O. Na 2 SO 4 If the molecular formula molar mass is 284.10, what is the molecular formula of the above compound. Na 4 S 2 O 8 What is the percent composition of FeO? 77.73% Fe and 22.27% O SM II Review
If the volume of a container holding a gas is reduced, what will happen to the pressure within the container? Increase What happens to the temperature of a gas when it is compressed? Increases What happens to the pressure of a gas inside a container, if the temperature of the gas is lowered? Decreases The volume of a gas is doubled while the temperature is held constant. How does the gas pressure change? Decreases by 2 times
SM II Review Boyles law states that PV = K, inverse proportion. Charles law states that V/T = K, direct proportion. Gay-Lussacs law states that P/T = K, direct proportion. Avogadros law states that V/n = K, direct proportion. Dalton's Law states that sum of all the pressures = the total pressure. Graham's law states that gases with smaller masses with effuse and diffuse faster than gases with larger masses.
Semester II Review How many grams of CO 2 are produced when 34.6 L of CH 4 combusts with oxygen at a pressure of 1.78 atm and a temperature of 28 o C. Balance the equation first. (combustion of hydrocarbon) CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O 2.49 mol CH 4 will produce 110. g CO 2
SM II Review A gas confined in a 305 mL container exerts a pressure of 1.07 atm at 38.6°C. At what Celsius temperature will it exert a pressure of 2.75 atm if it is placed into a 644 mL container? 1506 K - 273 = 1233 °C
SM II Review What is the pressure inside a 3.0 L flask if 30.5 g of Carbon Monoxide is held at a temperature of 105.2 o C? 11 atm or 1100 kPa