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The Second World War and its Impact

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1 The Second World War and its Impact
The Great European Nightmare

2 Diplomatic Triumphs and Failures
Treaty of Versailles did not create an enduring peace by severely punishing Germany and triggering future resentment against the "dictated peace." League of Nations, without (US & USSR) didn't have will nor support to maintain peace. Washington Naval Conference, : did not stop naval arms race Five Power Treaty: created a battleship ratio between U.S., Britain and Japan (others left out)

3 Diplomatic Triumphs and Failures
Locarno Pact, 1925: "spirit of Locarno" no longer relevant once Hitler took power Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928: "war is illegal"; not enforceable Japanese invasion of Manchuria, 1931: League of Nations condemned, but did little; Japan pulled out of League as a result

4 Hitler’s Foreign Policy
Hitler withdrew from League of Nations, 1933: secretly begins rearmament Stresa Front, 1935: Mussolini and others concerned Hitler withdrew from Versailles Treaty Italy, France, and Britain protested strongly, understanding the danger; agreed to use force to maintain status quo. However only a year later, Mussolini allied with Hitler to help fascists win in Spain

5 Remilitarization of the Rhineland
German reoccupation of the Rhineland, 1936: violated Versailles Treaty and Locarno Pact France unwilling to enforce the treaty without British aid; British didn't want another war. Hitler knew of the allies desire to avoid war at all costs; took advantage of this.

6 Italian Aggression in Ethiopia
Italian invasion of Ethiopia, 1935: League of Nations ineffective in its actions and protests. Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie appeals to League, who branded Italy an aggressor state. Embargo placed on Italy, but it did not include oil, which Italy needed to continue its invasion. Conquest complete in May 1936. Haile Selassie

7 Spanish Civil War, 1936 Mussolini and Hitler use conflict as a testing ground for their military forces: Italy's army; Germany's airforce -- Luftwaffe Fascism prevails under Francisco Franco League ineffective in helping republicans (Loyalists) against Franco. Rome-Berlin Axis formed ("Fascintern"): an alliance between fascist Italy and Germany

8 The Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
Oct. 1936, Germany and Italy signed the Rome-Berlin Axis. Anti-Comintern Pact, 1937: Italy signed with Germany and Japan to oppose communism Japan invades China, 1937: world watches the destruction of Chinese cities like Shanghai and "Rape of Nanking," but does little. Marks the beginning of World War II in Asia.

9 Annexation of Austria Anschluss: Germany annexes Austria, 1938
Hitler bullies the Austrians into accepting German control of the nation. Nazis in Austria put pressure on the government. German troops moved in on March 13. A plebiscite in April had a majority of Austrians favor the unification.

10 The Czechoslovakian Crisis
Sudetenland: Hitler demanded the German-speaking province in Czechoslovakia or else there would be war Munich Conference, 1938 arranged by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain Attended by Britain, France, Italy & Germany; Czechoslovakia and Russia not invited! British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain adopted a policy of appeasement Appeasement: making concessions to an aggressor in order to achieve peace

11 The Czechoslovakian Crisis
Pacifism is prevalent in Britain and France: memories of horrors of WWI; large segments of the populace don't want war Munich Agreement: Czechoslovakia forced to give away Sudetenland Chamberlain returns to Britain a hero, boasting: "we have secured peace in our time" German invasion of Czechoslovakia, spring1939: Hitler double-crosses Chamberlain

12 The Polish Crisis Hitler makes demands on port city of Danzig (Gdansk) in the Polish Corridor Chamberlain says if Germany attacks Poland there will be war Hitler does not want a two-front war against France & Britain in west and Russia in east

13 The Polish Crisis Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, Aug. 1939
World shocked that archenemies Hitler and Stalin would make such an agreement Hitler sought assurances USSR would not attack Germany if Germany invaded Poland Public agreement: nonaggression treaty Private agreement: Germany and USSR would invade Poland and split the country in half.

14 The Outbreak of War Germany invades Poland, Sept. 1, 1939: marks beginning of World War II in Europe September 3, Britain & France declare war on Germany

15 Hitler’s Conquests Blitzkrieg ("lightning war"): new form of warfare used by Germany to quickly defeat an enemy by poking a hole in enemy line and cutting off front lines from the rear thus surrounding enemy. Used coordinated attack on one part of enemy line with airforce, tanks, and artillery Poland defeated in about a month; partition occurred when USSR attacked from east. Stalin invades Finland (1939) and annexes Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania (1940) to create a buffer zone, believing Hitler will one day invade Soviet Union

16 Hitler’s Conquests sitzkrieg (“Phony War”): After Poland, a 7-month lull ensued, causing some to say WWII was a myth. The world waited to see where Hitler might strike next. Spring 1940: Hitler invaded Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium & Luxembourg

17 The Fall of France Fall of France, June 1940 occurred in less than six weeks Dunkirk: thousands of French and British soldiers trapped on beaches of France Before Germans came in for the kill, thousands were rescued by armada of British vessels Vichy France: Hitler did not wish to waste time subduing all of France Puppet gov't created in southern France “Free French” led by General Charles De Gaulle, General Charles De Gaulle, who fled to Britain. DeGaulle

18 The Battle of Britain Battle of Britain: one of most critical battles of the war Hitler sought to soften Britain up for an invasion ("Operation Sealion") Luftwaffe (led by Herman Goering, one of Hitler's inner circle) sent to destroy Royal Air Force (RAF) Winston Churchill emerged as inspirational war leader of Britain. Churchill

19 The Battle of Britain After almost defeating RAF, Hitler ordered bombing of London: fatal error RAF and their Spitfire fighters recovered and ultimately defeated Luftwaffe: Hitler forced to call off invasion of Britain Significance: Hitler had to guard against a future two-front war; (D-Day launched from Britain)

20 The Battle of the Atlantic
German U-Boats were an effective weapon against the British. The British depended upon their fleet and their trade connections to feed their people. German U-Boats sank thousands of allied shipping in

21 War in North Africa Italy invaded British Egypt in Sept and were repelled; the British took control of Italy’s East Africa possessions. Hitler dispatched the Afrika Korps under Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, the “Desert Fox” to aid the Italians. The Germans renewed their advance into Egypt, meeting British General Bernard Montgomery. Rommel

22 Invasion of the Soviet Union
German invasion of Soviet Union, Operation Barbarossa, June 1941: Hitler's attempt at "lebensraum" "Scorched Earth": Soviets destroyed anything of value as they withdrew to deprive German army of resources; 1,000's of towns disappeared! By winter, Germans at the gates of Moscow; lay siege to Leningrad in the North (lasted two years) and Stalingrad in the south. In Soviet Union, WWII became known as “Great Patriotic War of the Fatherland”

23 The Holocaust Holocaust resulted in deaths of 6 million Jews and 6 million others Hitler's "Final Solution" to the Jewish problem Formal plan came at Wanasee Conference in 1942 Six death camps built in Poland in addition to hundreds of concentration camps. Auschwitz was most notorious camp. Auschwitz

24 The Atlantic Charter Churchill and FDR meet secretly after invasion of Soviet Union Decide once Axis Powers defeated, there would be no territorial changes contrary to the wishes inhabitants (self-determination) Called for “a permanent system of general security”: later became the United Nations Stalin endorsed the agreement soon thereafter

25 U.S. Neutrality Neutrality Acts in 1930s prevented FDR from drawing U.S. into the conflict earlier. In general, a mood if isolationism prevailed in the United States, leading the U.S. to stay out of the conflict. Lend-Lease Act (1941) gave large amounts of money and supplies to help Britain and Soviets; effectively ended U.S. neutrality.

26 U.S Entry Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7, 1941, resulted in U.S. entry into the war Hitler declared war on U.S.: (another fatal blunder!) Instead of focusing on Japan, U.S. (along with Britain) would instead focus on defeating Germany first. The Grand Alliance formed in 1942: Britain, Soviet Union and U.S. and 2 dozen other countries

27 The Soviet Counterattack
The Germans pushed toward the oil rich Caucasus region. Stalingrad was the key. Dec. 1942: first Nazi defeat on land; Sixth army surrenders. Soviets began the 2.5 year campaign of pushing the German army back to Berlin. By the end of 1943, the Russians had taken back 2/3 of Soviet Territory.

28 War Diplomacy Casablanca Conference,1943 FDR and Churchill declared a policy of unconditional surrender for “all enemies” Italy would be invaded first before opening 2nd Front in France (to Stalin's dismay) Moscow Conference: 1943: US obtained Soviet agreement to enter the war against Japan after Germany was defeated and to participate in a world organization after the war was over.

29 Tehran Conference, 1943 First meeting of the “Big Three”: Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin Allies agreed to an invasion of the Western Europe in 1944. Stalin reaffirmed the Soviet commitment to enter the war against Japan

30 Tehran Conference, 1943 Stalin insisted on Soviet control of Eastern Europe and the carving up of Germany Churchill demanded free governments in Eastern Europe and a strong Germany after the war to preserve a balance of power in Europe. Roosevelt acted as a mediator and believed he could work with Stalin to achieve a post-world peace within the construct of the United Nations.

31 The Mediterranean “Operation Torch”, 1943: U.S. and British forces landed on North Africa El Alamein: British under Bernard Montgomery (“Monty”) drove the German Afrika Corps and General Erwin Rommel (“The Desert Fox”)out of Egypt Germany eventually defeated and suffered mass casualties and surrenders. Invasion of Sicily and Italy began in 1943

32 Allied Air Campaign In 1944, the Allies began a directed aerial bombing campaign against Germany. American air crews specialized in daylight precision bombing, while the British conducted nighttime raids. During the following two years, German industry, railroads, and cities were destroyed.

33 Invasion of Western Europe
D-Day, Operation Overlord, June 6, 1944: invasion of Normandy (northern French coast) by American, British, Canadian, and other allied forces under he command of Gen. Dwight Eisenhower. Western front established; spelled end of Nazi domination of Europe; Paris liberated in August. Hitler now fighting on three fronts: east against Russians, west against U.S. and Britain (& France) and Italy against U.S. and Britain

34 Allied Victories in the West
Battle of the Bulge, Dec. 1944: Hitler's last gasp offensive to drive Allies away from western German border; after it failed, Allies quickly penetrated deep into Germany in 1945.

35 Ending the War V-E Day, May 8, 1945: Germany surrenders (Hitler committed suicide a few days earlier) End of the war against Japan: U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Russia invades Manchuria

36 Results of World War II About 55 million dead (including missing); 22 million in USSR alone. Holocaust resulted in deaths of 6 million Jews and 6 million others. Millions homeless and millions relocated (especially Germans living outside Germany) Much of Europe lay in ruins: would take years to rebuild economy Women played even larger role in the war economy than in WWI (gained more rights after war) The U.S. and Soviet Union emerged as the two dominant powers in the postwar world.

37 Roots of the Cold War Teheran Conference, 1943: USSR guaranteed to be only power to liberate Eastern Europe Yalta Conference, 1945: Stalin pledged to allow democratic elections in E. Europe (but later reneged) Germany would be divided into four zones controlled by U.S., France, Britain and USSR After war, Soviets dominated their zone and did not allow reunification of Germany

38 Securing the Peace Yalta Conference, 1945: "Big Three" met again
Stalin agreed to enter Pacific war within 3 months after Germany surrendered Stalin agreed to a “Declaration of Liberated Europe” which called for free elections. Called for United Nations to meet in U.S. beginning in April 1945 Soviets would have 3 votes in General Assembly U.S., Britain, USSR, France & China to be permanent members of Security Council. Germany to be divided into occupied zones and a coalition government of communists and non-communists was agreed to for Poland. U.S.S.R. allowed to keep its pre-1939 territory. FDR accepted Soviet control of Outer Mongolia, the Kurile Islands, the southern half of Sakhalin Island, Port Arthur (Darien), and partial operation of the Manchurian railroads.

39 Securing the Peace Potsdam Conference, July 1945: Stalin, Harry Truman and Clement Atlee Issued warning to Japan of unconditional surrender or face utter devastation Stalin reversed his position on eastern Europe stating there would be no free elections Approvals given to concept of war-crimes trials and the demilitarization and denazification of Germany. Reparations from Germany could be taken from each respective zone. During conference Truman ordered dropping of atomic bomb on Japan

40 International Cooperation
Following the war, nations met in San Francisco to sign the United Nations Charter (building upon the Atlantic Charter) and the UN was established in New York. In 1945, the Nuremberg war crimes trials began, trying the Nazi leaders for crimes against humanity. Goering takes the stand

41 American Perspective Stalin seemed intent on creating "spheres" of influence in Eastern Europe Broke pledges at Yalta; refused to allow reunification of Germany Churchhill's "Iron Curtain" speech in 1946 alerted Americans to a future conflict U.S. wanted democracy spread throughout the world with a strong international organization to maintain global peace

42 Soviet Perspective Democracies traditionally hostile towards communism and the USSR e.g., Archangel expedition during WWI; non-recognition by U.S. until 1933 US & Britain did not open western front in Europe early enough; millions of Soviet soldiers were dying fighting the brunt of Nazi armies alone until mid-1944. The US and Britain froze Russia out of the atomic bomb project. US terminated lend-lease to Moscow in May 1945 but gave Britain aid until 1946. Wanted "buffer zone" for the Soviet western border esp. in Poland

43 Partition of Germany USSR, U.S., Britain & France would each occupy a part of Germany but would allow for German reunification once she was no longer a threat. Germany was to pay heavy reparations to USSR in form of agricultural and industrial goods.

44 Partition of Germany Soviets dominated their Eastern German zone
Did not want revitalized Germany that could once again pose a threat. Stripped E. Germany of much of its resources. U.S. and W. Europeans felt German economy vital to recovery of Europe

45 Partition of Germany 1949, West Germany became an independent country when US, France and Britain gave back each of their zones Federal Republic of Germany – led by Konrad Adenauer 1949, East Germany formally established – Democratic Republic of Germany led by Walter Ulbricht ( ); communist regime influenced by Moscow Konrad Adenauer

46 Containment By 1947, US pledged to prevent further spread of communism
Truman Doctrine, 1947: U.S. gave aid to Greece and Turkey to defeat communist forces there. Marshall Plan, 1947: Massive aid package to help war-torn Europe recover from the war Purpose: prevent communism from spreading into economically devastated regions Result: Western and Central Europe recovered economically -- the "economic miracle" Soviets refused to allow U.S. aid to countries in eastern Europe

47 Containment Berlin Crisis ( ): Soviets attempted to remove Allies from Berlin by cutting off access One of high tension points of the Cold War; close to World War III U.S. instituted a massive airlift; Soviets lifted blockade in 1949

48 NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed in 1949
Collective security organization consisting of democracies in Europe, U.S. & Canada to prevent against Soviet expansion in Europe. Radio Free Europe & Voice of America set up to send pro-democracy messages to countries behind the "iron curtain"

49 Eastern Bloc Countries in Eastern Europe dominated by Soviet Union after WWII Included Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Rumania, Bulgaria Communist parties of eastern Europe established one-party states by 1948, with help of Red Army and KGB (Soviet secret police). The Warsaw Pact was established in 1955 to counter NATO in west. Only Yugoslavia, led by Marshal Tito, is not dominated by Soviets. Marshall Tito

50 Eastern Bloc Postwar economic recovery in eastern Europe proceeded along Soviet lines. Changes went forward at slow & uneven pace; came to almost a halt by the mid-1960s. Five-year plans in USSR reintroduced to tackle massive economic reconstruction Stalin reinstitutes oppressive rule Great Patriotic War of the Fatherland had fostered Russian nationalism and a relaxation of dictatorial terror.

51 Eastern Bloc Stalin’s new foe, the U.S., provided an excuse for re-establishing harsh dictatorship. After war, Stalin repressed millions of Soviet citizens living outside Soviet borders when the war ended. Stalin revived many forced labor camp, which had accounted for roughly 1/6 of all new construction in Soviet Union before the war Culture and art were also purged

52 Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia the economic exception in E. Europe: industrialized, strong middle class and industrial working class and experience of political democracy between the wars. During “dualist period", President Benes and Foreign minister Jan Masaryk proposed to govern a social democracy while maintaining close voluntary relations with the USSR. In response to Marshall Plan in 1947, Stalin replaced gov’t in 1948 with 1-party communist rule to prevent nation from courting the West.

53 Post-War Political and Economic Framework
Bretton Woods Conference (1944): created International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and WTO Lay foundations for modern monetary system; based on U.S. dollar IMF (World Bank) designed to loan money to struggling countries to prevent economic crises and anarchy; instrumental in post-war economic boom. United Nations created in 1945.

54 Western Europe political recovery
Economic hardship after WWII: scarcity of food, runaway inflation, black markets Many people believed Europe was finished. Suffering was worst in Germany. Marshall Plan instituted to help recovery.

55 Political restructuring
Christian Democrats inspired by common Christian and European heritage. Rejected authoritarianism & narrow nationalism; had faith in democracy and cooperation. Catholic parties also progressive in nature. Socialists and Communists also emerged with increased power and prestige, especially in France and Italy. Pushed for social change and economic reform with considerable success. Result: social reform and political transformation created foundations for a great European renaissance.

56 Italy Christian Democrats gained control in 1946 led by Alcide De Gasperi Socialist influence: social benefits came to equal a large part of the average worker’s wages

57 France General Charles De Gaulle, inspiring wartime leader of Free French, re-established free and democratic Fourth Republic (resigned in 1949) Catholic party provided some of best postwar leaders e.g. Robert Schuman Socialist influence: large banks, insurance companies, public utilities, coal mines, and the Renault auto company were nationalized by gov’t.

58 West Germany 1949, Konrad Adenauer began long, highly successful democratic rule. Christian Democrats became West Germany’s majority party for a generation

59 Britain Clement Attlee, socialist Labour party leader, defeated Winston Churchill and the Conservatives in 1945 (later returned to power). Attlee moved toward establishment of a “welfare state.” Many industries nationalized, gov’t provided each citizen with free medical service and taxed the middle and upper classes more heavily.

60 The Economic Miracle Unprecedented economic growth in European history
Europe entered period of rapid economic progress lasting into late 1960s. By 1963, western Europe produced more than 2.5 times more than before the war. Causes: Marshall Plan aid helped western Europe begin recovery in 1947 Korean War in 1950 stimulated economic activity. Economic growth became a basic objective of all western European governments. Governments accepted Keynesian economics to stimulate their economies.

61 The Economic Miracle Germany and France were especially successful and influential. In most countries many people willing to work hard for low wages; expanding industries benefited. Increased demand for consumer goods. Many economic barriers eliminated and a large unified market emerged: Common Market.

62 The Common Market German economic recovery led by finance minister Ludwig Erhard Combined free-market economy & extensive social welfare network inherited from Nazi era. By late 1950s, West Germany had robust economy, full employment, a strong currency and stable prices.

63 The Common Market France
Combined flexible planning and a “mixed” state and private economy to achieve most rapid economic development in its history. Jean Monnet: economic pragmatist and architect of European unity. France used Marshall Plan aid money and the nationalized banks to funnel money into key industries, several of which were state owned. European Coal and Steal Community in 1958.

64 European De-Colonization
Postwar era saw total collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, almost every colonial territory gained independence. New nations of Asia and Africa deeply influenced by Western ideas and achievements. Causes Modern nationalism and belief in self-determination and racial equality, spread from intellectuals to the masses in virtually every colonial territory after WWI. Decline of European prestige: Japanese victories; destruction of Europe during WWII After 1945, European powers more concerned about rebuilding; let colonies go

65 India India played a key role in decolonization and the end of empire.
Indian National Congress: British had no choice but to develop a native political elite that could assist in ruling such huge country. Exposure of young Indians to Western ideas of nationalism, socialism, and democracy led to demands for independence by the early 20th century. Mohandas K. Gandhi: after WWI led independence movement with principle of passive resistance (civil disobedience) Jawaharlal Nehru led Congress party in its push for independence)

66 India Clement Attlee and others in Labour party wished to focus on internal affairs. Lord Louis Mountbatten: appointed to supervise transition of India to independence Divided India into two nations: India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim)

67 China After WWII (defeat of Japanese invaders) a civil war broke out between communists led by Mao Zedong and Nationalists led by Jiang Jieshi (Chang kai-shek) Mao won the revolution and created a communist country: People's Republic of China

68 Indo-China After Japanese removed after WWII, French tried to reassert control of Indochina Ho Chi Minh led the independence movement in the north 1954, defeated French forces at Dien Bien Phu 1954,Vietnam was divided into North (communist) and South (pro-Western); civil war resulted U.S. defeated in attempt to prevent communist takeover of South Vietnam; Vietnam unified in 1975

69 The Middle East Arab nationalists loosely united by opposition to colonialism and migration of Jews to Palestine Israel and Palestine Balfour Declaration in 1917 indicated Britain favored creation of Jewish “national home” in Palestine—opposed by Saudi Arabia & Transjordan Great Britain announced its withdrawal from Palestine in 1948. United Nations voted for creation of two states, one Arab and one Jewish Palestinians vowed to fight on until state of Israel destroyed or until they established own independent Palestinian state; led to several wars and numerous conflicts in late 20th century

70 The Middle East Egypt Arab defeat in 1948 by Israel triggered nationalist revolution in Egypt in 1952. 1956, Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, the last symbol and substance of Western power in the Middle East. France, Britain and Israel attacked Egypt, trying to take back control of Suez Canal U.S. and Soviet Union demanded their withdrawal and the canal remained in Egypt's control

71 Middle East Algerian Crisis (mid 1950s)
Algeria’s large French population considered Algeria an integral part of France. This feeling led ensuing war; bitter and atypical of decolonization. General De Gaulle, who had returned to power as part of movement to keep Algeria French, accepted principle of Algerian self-determination. 1962, after more than a century of French rule, Algeria became independent and the European population quickly fled. Crisis led to fall of the Fourth Republic and beginning of the Fifth Republic

72 Sub-Saharan Africa   Decolonization proceeded much more smoothly than in northern Africa ·British Commonwealth of Nations: beginning in 1957, Britain’s colonies achieved independence with little or no bloodshed; entered a very loose association with Britain. · Exception: Mao Mao society were a Kenyan group of terrorists/freedom fighters who fought to end English control of Kenya.

73 Sub-Saharan Africa 1958, De Gaulle offered leaders of French black Africa choice of total break with France or immediate independence within a kind of French commonwealth. ·  All but one of new states chose association with France. ·    Cultural imperialism continued, ·   France and Common Market partners saw themselves as continuing their civilizing mission in black Africa. ·   Desired untapped markets for industrial goods, raw materials, outlets for profitable investment, and good temporary jobs for their engineers and teachers.

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