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Discussing the European and Asian theatres

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1 Discussing the European and Asian theatres
World War II Discussing the European and Asian theatres

2 Background Information
Following World War I, the countries of Europe wanted to return to normalcy Russia underwent a revolution in 1917 and was now making progress Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points ineffective and meaningless Wilson’s League of Nations ineffective and weak The Treaty of Versailles a weak agreement that was not enforced

3 Background Information
World War I destroyed most of Europe France was either blown up or occupied the entire war Germany suffered severe inflation problems U.S. gets involved Funds major rebuilding operations U.S. industry profits from huge demand U.S. still very isolationist Germany forced to pay reparations for the war

4 Background Information
With the stock market crash in 1929, the world economy was deeply impacted Communist Russia, under Stalin, witnessed economic growth A power vacuum was created in Europe after World War I – no strong leader Power vacuum leads to Fascism U.S. under Franklin Delano Roosevelt too busy with Depression to worry about Europe

5 Fascism Extreme nationalism / Conservative
Nothing good outside of the state Anti-Semitic, Anti-Communist Starts in Italy with Benito Mussolini, then spreads to Spain under Francisco Franco and then Germany Most famous Adolf Hitler

6 Adolf Hitler Born in Austria German army officer during World War I
Formed the SA (Sturmabteil), who were ordered to attack Nazi enemies Hitler and his men staged a coup of the Weimar government in 1923 (Beer Hall Putsch), but they were captured and Hitler served jail time While in jail, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf

7 Adolf Hitler Hitler grew in power and was named Chancellor of Germany by Hindenberg When Hindenberg died, Hitler called an emergency and declared himself dictator Hitler purged the SA in 1934 and replaced them with the SS (Schutzstaffel) lead by Heinrich Himmler

8 Adolf Hitler SS did the dirty work of Hitler – cast out the Jewish community, vagrants, gypsies Hitler used racism and nationalism to build up the German military and confidence Very effective public speaker who fooled the German people into believing him Hitler wanted to establish a super race of Germans and unite all the German-speaking nations (Anschluss) to create the 3rd Reich Hitler takes over Austria

9 Adolf Hitler Hitler wanted to occupy the Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) but the French and British refused Meet Hitler in 1938 and agree he could occupy German Czechoslovakia Hitler promised he would take no more land, PM Neville Chamberlain proclaimed peace Hitler then took the remaining parts of Czechoslovakia, signifying that he would not stop

10 Adolf Hitler Hitler realized that Europe and America would do everything to avoid another World War Hitler signed a non-aggression pact with Russia Hitler believed that German aggression and European weakness would stop the other countries from making any moves

11 Adolf Hitler "We will not capitulate - no, never! We may be destroyed, but if we are, we shall drag a world with us - a world in flames."

12 Major Allied Players FDR, President of the United States
General Douglas MacArthur, Commander of Pacific Operations General George Patton, U.S. commander in Europe General Bernard Montgomery, British commander in Europe Charles De Gaulle, General in command of French resistance forces Sir Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of Great Britain

13 Major Axis Players Joseph Stalin, Dictator of Russia
Erwin Rommel, Commander of the Afrika Korps and European forces General Yamamoto, Commander-In-Chief of the combined Japanese fleets “Fuhrer” Adolf Hitler, Commander of the SS, Dictator of Germany Heinrich Himmler, General of the SS Benito “Il Duche” Mussolini, Dictator of Italy

14 It Begins Germany invades Poland in 1939 using the Blitzkrieg (Lightning War) Dive bombers and long range artillery devastated targets Armored columns penetrate where the initial targeting had been carried out Mechanized infantry follow the columns The armored columns and mechanized infantry fan out forcing retreat or surrender Foot soldiers clean up what’s left

15 It Begins Poland no match for German army and the Reds arrive to split Poland Following the occupation of Poland, little action happened, nicknamed the “Sitzkrieg” “Sitzkrieg” ends when Hitler attacks Norway and Denmark in 1940 Denmark fell in an afternoon, and Norway was no match

16 It Begins Wehrmacht also took over Belgium and nearly trapped 150k Belgian, French, and British soldiers in Dunkirk Hitler offers peace terms to Britain and France, both refuse Winston Churchill replaces Neville Chamberlain as British Prime Minister (only one who knew what Hitler was up to the whole time)

17 It Begins Hitler invades France after they refuse to surrender
Hitler realized that Churchill would be a formidable opponent Germans went right around the French Maginot Line and occupied the northern half of France Germans set up a puppet government in south, called Vichy France Only Britain remained to fight off the Germans Closest Hitler comes to winning the war

18 It Begins

19 Warring Parties Allies Great Britain France U.S. (Later)
Soviet Union (Later) Italy (Later) Axis Germany Italy Russia Turkey Japan

20 World War II Technology
Tanks Machine Guns Radar Sonar Submarines (U-Boats) Encryption Devices Grenades Snipers Field Radios Jets Airplanes Aircraft Carriers Kamikaze Pilots H-Bomb Blitzkrieg Light Mechanized Vehicles Rail Guns V-2 Rockets Chem and Bio Weapons

21 Mechanized Infantry German Panzer Panzerkampfwagen
Earliest German tank Lightly armored 13 mm armor 57 hp Krupp gas motor 7.92 MG34 Gun 4 Variants

22 Mechanized Infantry German Panther Medium Heavy Armor
80 mm front and side armor, 40 mm rear 700 hp Maybach V12 55 mph top speed Main gun 75 mm (2) 7.92 MG34’s

23 Mechanized Infantry German Tiger Heavy Armor
100 mm front and side, 80 mm rear 690 hp Maybach V12 38 mph top speed Main gun 88 mm (2) 7.92 MG34’s

24 Mechanized Infantry U.S. M3 Stuart 1st American tank Light armor
44 mm front, 25 mm sides and back 262 hp Continental gas motor 58 mph top speed Main gun 37 mm (5) .30 cal machine guns

25 Mechanized Infantry U.S. M4 Sherman Medium Armor
51 mm front, 38 mm sides and rear 400 hp Continental gas motor 34 mph top speed Main gun 75 mm (2) .30 cal and cal machine guns

26 Mechanized Infantry U.S. M18 Hellcat Tank Destroyer 13 mm armor around
460 hp Continental gas motor 80 mph top speed Main gun 76 mm (1) .50 cal machine gun

27 Mechanized Infantry U.S.S.R. T-34 Most widely produced Medium armor
45 mm armor around 500 hp Diesel v12 55 mph top speed Main gun 76.2 mm (2) 7.62mm guns

28 The Blitz Massive air attack of London planned by Hermann Goering, commander of the Luftwaffe (Aug 1940) Initially attacked Royal Air Force (RAF) bases, then turned to cities RAF pilots were better, with better planes (Spitfire and Hurricane)

29 The Blitz Luftwaffe called off in April 1941 after heavy casualties
British had radar, the Germans did not London and Coventry were destroyed Citizens lived in the subways for months “Never was so much owed by so many to so few” ~ Winston Churchill

30 The Blitz

31 Mid-War Europe

32 Invasion of Russia AKA Operation Barbarossa
Hitler wanted to attack in spring 1941 but had to bail out Italy in Albania Hitler follows Napoleon’s path with the same result, the Russians burn everything and the Germans are not ready for the cold weather and hardships of the Russian terrain Partisans pick apart the German supply line

33 Invasion of Russia Hitler got as far as Smolensk and then split his forces Germans never made it to Moscow Part of his army attempts to take Leningrad Brutal battle for the city named after the Communist founder Hitler wanted to deal a morally degrading blow to the Russians

34 Invasion of Russia “Big Bertha” brought to secure oil supplies in Crimea Hitler also tried to take Stalingrad (named for current dictator) but was cut off by Alexander Zhukov Battles of Leningrad and Stalingrad extremely costly for Hitler and probably cost him the war

35 Invasion of Russia

36 Holocaust Himmler lead the SS in war and ideas
Wanted to create the Nazi “super race” of blonde-haired, blue-eyed Germans Concentration camps were set up to destroy Jews, elderly, sick, and mentally challenged to maintain German purity All camps based on the Dachau model, most famous is Auschwitz

37 Holocaust

38 Holocaust

39 Holocaust

40 Holocaust

41 Holocaust

42 Holocaust An estimated 6 million Jews were killed, along with another 2 million gypsies and an unknown number of elderly Most were either buried in mass graves or incinerated in concentration camps Nazis believed that their race was being “infected” by lesser nations Not all Nazis believed this or were involved, including most citizens

43 Pearl Harbor U.S. only gave aid and weapons until Dec 7, 1941
Japanese attacked Hawaiian naval base, Pearl Harbor, at 7:00 in the morning “A Day which will live in infamy” ~ FDR Hitler did not want to involve the U.S. U.S. entered the war in 1941 with military and industrial fury

44 Pearl Harbor

45 Pearl Harbor

46 Pearl Harbor “I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve.” ~ General Yamamoto, following Pearl Harbor

47 Allied Counter British decide to attack the Nazis in Northern Africa
German Afrika Korps under the control of Erwin Rommel, the “Desert Fox” -Rommel not prepared for attack First time U.S. troops were involved in fighting General Patton invades Italy Montgomery forces Nazis out of Northern Africa

48 D-Day (Operation Overlord)
Organized by Dwight D. Eisenhower Greatest amphibious landing in history U.S. used diversion techniques to fool the Germans 100k men landed, plus paratroopers Toughest Omaha beach – 80% dead 101st Airborne parachuted in to provide support behind enemy lines

49 D-Day (Operation Overlord)
You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers-in-arms on other Fronts, you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world. ~ General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Commander of European Operations

50 Battle of the Bulge U.S. forces enter France and liberate Paris in August 1944 Germans concentrate their forces and the Battle of the Bulge begins See-saw battle between Allied and Axis forces Germans punched 50 miles into Allied lines but ran out of gas (literally) Last significant German attack Allies retake the ground and push forward

51 The Collapse Allied troops pushed the Germans back to the Rhineland (Area b/w Germany and France) Americans discover concentration camps as they march towards Berlin U.S. and Soviet troops meet at the Elbe River in Berlin and the war in Europe is over (V-E Day, May 8, 1945) Hitler and his top aids commit suicide

52 The Collapse Cyanide & Pistols The Führer’s Bunker
Hitler and Eva Braun

53 War in the Pacific Empire of Japan had been expanding since the 1930’s with brutal force Invade China, Korea, Manchuria, Vietnam U.S. not happy – freezes Japanese assets, boycotts oil, steel U.S. refuses to talk with Japanese until they pull out – taken as major insult and begin practicing for Pearl Harbor

54 War in the Pacific Pearl Harbor
U.S. broke diplomatic codes but not the military U.S. Intelligence may have known 8 Battleships and 3 Aircraft carriers (out on assignment) 2500 total dead Oklahoma sunk and raised to continue fighting

55 War in the Pacific U.S. forces under General MacArthur begin to capture Pacific Islands Philippines, Iwo Jima, then air bombings of Tokyo and the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Captured soldiers forced on the Bataan Death march – 76,000 prisoners forced to march 60 miles in the heat to prison camp

56 War in the Pacific

57 War in the Pacific

58 War in the Pacific Battle of Midway turning point – U.S. takes the island A battle of aircraft carriers – ships never see eachother U.S. develops nuclear bombs (Manhattan Project) and used them to end the war quickly H-Bomb Little Boy (Enola Gay) dropped on Hiroshima and Fat Man (Boxcar) dropped on Nagasaki

59 War in the Pacific

60 War in the Pacific

61 War in the Pacific Japan surrenders a few days after the nuclear bombings, which was the intent of President Johnson The use of nuclear force has been questioned since WWII Nuclear option used because of a miscommunication by the translators V-J Day Sept 2, 1945

62 War in the Pacific

63 Life After War Yalta Conference
FDR met with Churchill and Stalin to discuss post-war plans Germany would be broken up into parts protected by Allied powers Soviets promise to improve Eastern Europe FDR dies while in 4th term and is succeeded by Johnson, who uses the bomb

64 Life After War

65 WWII Casualties Civilians only. Army and navy figures.
Country Men in war Battle deaths Wounded Australia 1,000,000 26,976 180,864 Austria 800,000 280,000 350,117 Belgium 625,000 8,460 55,5131 Brazil2 40,334 943 4,222 Bulgaria 339,760 6,671 21,878 Canada 1,086,3437 42,0427 53,145 China3 17,250,521 1,324,516 1,762,006 Czechoslovakia 6,6834 8,017 Denmark 4,339 Finland 500,000 79,047 50,000 France 201,568 400,000 Germany 20,000,000 3,250,0004 7,250,000 Greece 17,024 47,290 Hungary 147,435 89,313 India 2,393,891 32,121 64,354 Italy 3,100,000 149,4964 66,716 Japan 9,700,000 1,270,000 140,000 Netherlands 6,500 2,860 New Zealand 194,000 11,6254 17,000 Norway 75,000 2,000 Poland 664,000 530,000 Romania 650,0005 350,0006 South Africa 410,056 2,473 U.S.S.R. 6,115,0004 14,012,000 United Kingdom 5,896,000 357,1164 369,267 United States 16,112,566 291,557 670,846 Yugoslavia 3,741,000 305,000 425,000 WWII Casualties Civilians only. Army and navy figures. Figures cover period July 7, 1937 to Sept. 2, 1945, and concern only Chinese regular troops. They do not include casualties suffered by guerrillas and local military corps. Deaths from all causes. Against Soviet Russia; 385,847 against Nazi Germany. Against Soviet Russia; 169,822 against Nazi Germany. National Defense Ctr., Canadian Forces Hq., Director of History.

66 Life After War Two superpowers emerge: Capitalist U.S. and Communist U.S.S.R. These two world powers begin to create spheres of influence throughout the world Europe was completely destroyed and reconstruction efforts, with U.S. help, begin

67 Life After War The Nuclear Era had begun and an arms race soon began
Japan was put under military control by General MacArthur until they became stable Japanese, Italian, and German high officials charged in the Nuremberg Trials

68 Life After War Our national situation, the current situation in the Middle East, and the future of Europe and Russia are all dependant up on World War II Millions of men fought and died to destroy pure evil

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