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Presentation on theme: "THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH."— Presentation transcript:


2 “faithfully execute the laws of the United States.”
The Executive Branch REQUIREMENTS 1. Must be at least 35 years of age 2. Must be a natural born citizen * 3. Must have lived in the U.S. for 14 years Article II “faithfully execute the laws of the United States.” Created office of the President & Vice President *****Although not specifically states, the requirements for the Vice President are the same as the requirements for the President

3 The Executive Branch POWERS- Commander in Chief
Importance: Civilian leader of the military Prevents military dictatorship within history THIS DOES NOT MEAN THE PRESIDENT DECLARES WAR!!!!! *CONGRESS DECLARES WAR *WAR POWERS ACT Presidents who have used this power- Lincoln, T.Roosevelt, Truman, Johnson, Nixon

4 The Executive Branch POWERS- Pardons & Reprieves
Importance: Check on the Judicial branch PARDON: Official government forgiveness of a crime REPRIEVE: Shortening/Commuting a sentence Famous pardons: Eugene Debs (Harding); FORD PARDONS NIXON Some are controversial because they are done at end of administration Pardons & Reprieves are final, but if done with illegal intentions, President is subject to penalty (Clinton)

5 The Executive Branch POWERS-Veto Power
Importance: Check on Legislative Branch President becomes involved in the creation of legislation with this threat Power of veto demonstrates power of the office or lack thereof (if overridden) Total Vetoes-2560 Total Overrides-110 Percentage of vetoes overridden- 4% ( Line Item Veto???

6 The Executive Branch POWERS- Treaty making
Importance: Allows President to be major player within foreign policy arena This power is shared with Senate, who must ratify the treaty by 2/3 majority Famous Treaties: Treaty of Versailles (not passed), NAFTA, creation of NATO Total # of treaties rejected by Senate- 21

7 The Executive Branch POWERS- Appointments
Importance: Check on judiciary and important in creation and executing policy Very rarely is President’s choice declined Simple majority vote needed (SENATE) 27 Supreme Court nominees have been rejected (153) 9 presidential cabinet appointees have been rejected Recess Appointments????

8 The Executive Branch POWERS- State of the Union
Importance: Public persuasion Allows President to announce policy goals and direction of country Does not have to be done in person From Jefferson to T. Roosevelt, done by letter; Wilson begins making it in person

9 The Executive Branch POWERS- Calling Sessions of Congress
President may call special sessions of Congress for important matters Check on the Legislative Branch

10 The Executive Branch The Ordinance Power Executive Orders/Agreements
Not a formal power Exec. Order: acts with the power of a law Exec. Agreement: acts with the power of a treaty Differences: 1)these do not go through Congress and 2) does not have to be followed by next President Can be ruled unconstitutional by courts

11 Executive Order by President


13 The Executive Branch The President- The Bully Pulpit
“The job of the president is not one of command but one of persuasion.” “The job of the president is to persuade people “to do the things they ought to have the sense enough to do without my persuading them.”- Harry Truman 3 major audiences- DC politicians, Party politicians, General public Goal: Turn public support into influence

14 Executive Privilege •Refers to the assertion made by the President
or other executive branch officials when they refuse to give Congress, the courts, or private parties information or records which have been requested or subpoenaed, or when they order government witnesses not to testify before Congress. •The assertion is based on the constitutional doctrine of separation of powers, is always controversial, subject to interpretation, and often U.S. v Nixon- Famous case dealing with Executive Privilege

15 Executive Branch Checks and Balances
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH THE JUDICIAL BRANCH Can veto laws Can call special sessions of Congress Negotiates Treaties Executive Privilege Appoints Judges Can pardon and reprieve criminals

16 Presidential Succession Act-1947 NOT IN THE CONSTITUTION
Vice President Speaker of the House President Pro Temp (Most Senior member of the Majority party in the Senate) Cabinet Secretaries (in order their department was created)

17 The Executive Branch Other Interesting Facts & Info
Compensation •Salary: $400,000 (upgraded from $200,000) •Free Housing (The White House) •Free Transportation (Air Force One + Limo service) • Fringe Benefits: Free Health Care, Secret Service •Pension: $191,300/year for life, Spouse: $20,000/year

18 The Executive Branch Amendments Dealing w/ President
Amendment 12: Electoral college shall have separate votes for President and Vice President Amendment 20: Inauguration Day: Jan. 20, if President elect dies before taking office, Vice President elect shall become new president

19 The Executive Branch Amendments Dealing w/ President
Amendment 22: Known as the FDR amendment, no president shall serve more then 2 terms or 10 years in office Amendment 25: Known as the JFK amendment, 1) when vacancy opens in Vice President office, President may appoint new one w/ consent from both houses, 2) President may temp give up position by written letter to SOTH & Pres. Pro Temp (must write new letter to resume power) 3) Vice President and majority of cabinet can write letter to remove President, or 2/3 of Congress can declare the President unable to rule

20 How Do We Elect Our Presidents?
Primaries, Caucuses, and the Electoral College

21 Primaries & Caucuses Primaries and Caucuses are how the parties select their candidate Difference between P’s and C’s Open vs Closed vs Blanket Primaries This is seen as more democratic than the old system of letting party bosses select candidates Problems: Frontloading, TV/Media, $

22 The Election of the President of the U.S.
The Electoral College Is it a necessary evil or an outdated institution????

23 The Electoral College WHAT IS IT?
WHY HAVE IT? -Gives power to small states -Check upon illiterate people WHAT IS IT? •Every state is allotted votes based upon # of Representatives and Senators. This vote actually chooses the President. ** HOW DOES IT WORK? •Parties pick slate of people who commit to voting for their party’s candidate; FAITHLESS ELECTOR General Election held 270 electoral votes to win (if no winner, election to the House); WINNER TAKE ALL SYSTEM


25 2008 Election Results

26 2000 Election In 2000, George W. Bush carried 2,439 counties to 674 for Sen. Al Gore. Bush lost the popular vote but won the election.

27 Historical Elections- Problems w/ the Electoral College
Election of Jefferson vs Burr- No majority -Election goes to the House -Result: 12th Amendment Election of 1824 J.Q. Adams vs Andrew Jackson -No majority -Election goes to the House Election of 1888 & 2000 Benj. Harrison & George W Bush become President even though they lose popular elections Election of 1876 Sam Tilden (D) 4,284,020 Rutherford Hayes (R) 4,036,572 How did he win? Tilden- 203 Hayes- 166 How did he win Congressional review of election ( 3 states-19 Elec votes) Committee- 9 Rep vs 8 Dem Committee agrees to change outcome in each state

28 Is the Electoral College Fair?
California- 55 electoral votes-10.2% of electoral votes-12% of population Texas- 34 electoral votes-6.3% of electoral votes-7.4% of population New York- 31 electoral votes-5.8% of electoral votes- 6.7% of population Florida- 27 electoral votes- 5% of electoral votes- 5.7% of population Illinois- 21 electoral votes- 3.9% of electoral votes- 4.4% of population Alaska -Delaware-DC-Montana-North/South Dakota-Vermont All have 3 electoral votes (.6% of the electoral votes) But make up only .2% of the population

29 The Executive Branch- The President The Main Roles of the Modern President Are presidents unable to govern effectively because public expectations are too high? 1. The President= Chief of State 2. The President= Chief Executive 3. The President= Commander-In-Chief 4. The President= Chief Diplomat 5. The President= Chief Legislator 6. The President= Party Leader 7. The President= Popular Leader

30 The President and the Media
Does the media impact politics? Does politics affect the media?

31 Who are the mass media? Traditional media The “new media” Newspapers
Television Magazines Radio The “new media” Examples – INTERNET & CELL/SMART PHONE Characteristics- Mobile, includes traditional, searching, update immediately, national/inter Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 | 31

32 The media and public opinion
Do the media influence public opinion? Yes No Impact of newspapers Journalists may be liberal, but publishers are conservative Lack of competition Type of coverage Impact of television Decline of substantive coverage, rise of images and slogans SOUNDBITES Impact of “adversarial journalism” -What is adversarial journalism? Impact of the internet Traditional sites vs. “Drudge” and blogs? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 | 32

33 Effects of the media on politics
Roles of the media NEWS PROVIDER- Is the media objective or biased? What should it be? WATCHDOG- Does the media focus too much on political scandal? GATEKEEPER- What does the media cover/not cover? The nature of media influences Profit Agenda-setting Cost Candidate-centered campaigns WH manipulation of the media Far less coverage of Supreme Court than other branches Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 | 33

34 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
12 | 34

35 The Executive Branch The Modern President
The President & The Media Famous Elections with Media Impact -The 1948 Election- Truman’s Defeat/Victory -The 1960 Election-Television’s 1st Debate -The 1992 Election- The Perot Factor -The 2000 Election-Florida Confusion -The 2004 Democratic Primaries-The Dean Scream

36 The Executive Branch The President & Fundraising General Fundraising Rules
FECA-Federal Election Campaign Act A. FEC B. Donation Limits C. Disclosure Rules D. Req. for Matching Funds McCain-Feingold (Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act) A. Raised Limits B. Soft Money Ban C. Issue Ad limitations Buckley v Valeo; McConnell v FEC; Citzens United v FEC

37 The Federal Bureaucracy
Is the Government of The United States TOO BIG???

38 The Federal Bureaucracy
Major purpose: to administer and implement programs and services, regulate society Agencies come up with policy ideas, deliver services The U.S. bureaucracy million employees Jobs originally given for patronage, Pendleton Act: changes manner of giving jobs- from patronage to merit/civil service system Broken into 5 major parts 1. Cabinet Departments 2. Independent Executive Agencies 3. Regulatory Agencies 4. Government Corporations 5. EOP (Executive Office of the Pres.)

39 Executive Office of the President THE WEST WING
The Executive Office of the President is made up of White House offices and agencies. These offices help develop and implement the policy and programs of the president. National Security Council (NSC), Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Closet advisors to the President

40 Cabinet Departments 15 total department of various size, status, visibility, and function ROLE: carries out broad tasks, provides necessary services, acts as experts in policy areas State- Most prestigious, only 25,000 employees Defense- Largest department; 750,000 civilians, 1.5 million military personnel, The Pentagon HHS- largest budget Clientele Agencies- Depts that represent certain groups of people (power of interest groups)_ Farmers- created Dept of Agriculture in 1889 Business & Labor- created Commerce and Labor Depts. in 1903 Veterans- Veterans’ Affairs

41 Depts and their Famous parts
Each department has smaller, well known units Home. Sec- INS, Secret Serv., Coast Guard, Justice- FBI, Bureau of Prisons, Marshalls, ATF, DEA HHS-NIH, CDC, FDA, Medicare, Medicaid Agriculture- Forest Service Commerce- NOAA, Census, Patents Transportation- FAA (Federal Aviation Administration, FHWA, NTSB (National Traffic Safety Board)

42 Independent Executive Agencies
Narrower areas of responsibility Examples- NASA, CIA, Peace Corp, Civil Rights Commission Agency heads are appointed by President; not in cabinet

43 Regulatory Agencies Have legislative, executive, and judicial functions (are exceptions to the ideal of sep. of power); ROLE: created to regulate important aspects of our economy/society Commissioners serve a fixed, long and staggered term; appointed by President and approved by Senate (Cannot be removed at will by President)

44 Regulatory Agencies Examples:
EPA: regulates our environment for clean water, air, noise, waste, and other emissions SEC: regulates the buying /selling of all stocks, bonds and other securities FCC: Federal Communications Commission -regulates all forms of communications from TV, radio, telegraph, internet

45 Government Corporations
Businesses run by the goverment to: Provide a service for cheaper rates Provide a service that is essential The Post Office- 800,000 employees; receives some funding from government FDIC- Federal Deposit Insurance Company AMTRAK

46 The Growing Bureaucracy
1800- only 3,000 employees By ,000 federal employees Under FDR- 1.2 million employees Era of Smaller Government Reagan toys with idea of eliminating Energy, Transportation, and Education Depts. Clinton shrinks federal government by 100,000

47 Understanding Bureaucracies
Figure 15.5


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