2 “faithfully execute the laws of the United States.” The Executive BranchREQUIREMENTS1. Must be at least 35 years of age2. Must be a natural born citizen *3. Must have lived in the U.S. for 14 yearsArticle II“faithfully execute the laws of the United States.”Created office of the President & Vice President*****Although not specifically states, the requirements for the Vice President are the same as the requirements for the President
3 The Executive Branch POWERS- Commander in Chief Importance: Civilian leader of the militaryPrevents military dictatorship within historyTHIS DOES NOT MEAN THE PRESIDENT DECLARES WAR!!!!! *CONGRESS DECLARES WAR*WAR POWERS ACTPresidents who have used this power- Lincoln, T.Roosevelt, Truman, Johnson, Nixon
4 The Executive Branch POWERS- Pardons & Reprieves Importance: Check on the Judicial branchPARDON: Official government forgiveness of a crimeREPRIEVE: Shortening/Commuting a sentenceFamous pardons: Eugene Debs (Harding); FORD PARDONS NIXONSome are controversial because they are done at end of administrationPardons & Reprieves are final, but if done with illegal intentions, President is subject to penalty (Clinton)
5 The Executive Branch POWERS-Veto Power Importance: Check on Legislative Branch President becomes involved in the creation of legislation with this threatPower of veto demonstrates power of the office or lack thereof (if overridden)Total Vetoes-2560Total Overrides-110Percentage of vetoes overridden- 4% (Line Item Veto???
6 The Executive Branch POWERS- Treaty making Importance: Allows President to be major player within foreign policy arenaThis power is shared with Senate, who must ratify the treaty by 2/3 majorityFamous Treaties: Treaty of Versailles (not passed), NAFTA, creation of NATOTotal # of treaties rejected by Senate- 21
7 The Executive Branch POWERS- Appointments Importance: Check on judiciary and important in creation and executing policyVery rarely is President’s choice declinedSimple majority vote needed (SENATE)27 Supreme Court nominees have been rejected (153)9 presidential cabinet appointees have been rejectedRecess Appointments????
8 The Executive Branch POWERS- State of the Union Importance: Public persuasionAllows President to announce policy goals and direction of countryDoes not have to be done in person From Jefferson to T. Roosevelt, done by letter; Wilson begins making it in person
9 The Executive Branch POWERS- Calling Sessions of Congress President may call special sessions of Congress for important mattersCheck on the Legislative Branch
10 The Executive Branch The Ordinance Power Executive Orders/Agreements Not a formal powerExec. Order: acts with the power of a lawExec. Agreement: acts with the power of a treatyDifferences: 1)these do not go through Congress and 2) does not have to be followed by next PresidentCan be ruled unconstitutional by courts
13 The Executive Branch The President- The Bully Pulpit “The job of the president is not one of command but one of persuasion.”“The job of the president is to persuade people “to do the things they ought to have the sense enough to do without my persuading them.”- Harry Truman3 major audiences- DC politicians, Party politicians, General publicGoal: Turn public support into influence
14 Executive Privilege •Refers to the assertion made by the President or other executive branch officials when they refuse togive Congress, the courts, or private partiesinformation or records which have been requested orsubpoenaed, or when they order governmentwitnesses not to testify before Congress.•The assertion is based on the constitutional doctrineof separation of powers, is always controversial,subject to interpretation, and oftenU.S. v Nixon- Famous case dealing with Executive Privilege
15 Executive Branch Checks and Balances THE EXECUTIVE BRANCHTHE LEGISLATIVE BRANCHTHE JUDICIAL BRANCHCan veto lawsCan call special sessions of CongressNegotiates TreatiesExecutive PrivilegeAppoints JudgesCan pardon and reprieve criminals
16 Presidential Succession Act-1947 NOT IN THE CONSTITUTION Vice PresidentSpeaker of the HousePresident Pro Temp (Most Senior member of the Majority party in the Senate)Cabinet Secretaries (in order their department was created)
17 The Executive Branch Other Interesting Facts & Info Compensation •Salary: $400,000 (upgraded from $200,000) •Free Housing (The White House) •Free Transportation (Air Force One + Limo service) • Fringe Benefits: Free Health Care, Secret Service •Pension: $191,300/year for life, Spouse: $20,000/year
18 The Executive Branch Amendments Dealing w/ President Amendment 12: Electoral college shall have separate votes for President and Vice PresidentAmendment 20: Inauguration Day: Jan. 20, if President elect dies before taking office, Vice President elect shall become new president
19 The Executive Branch Amendments Dealing w/ President Amendment 22: Known as the FDR amendment, no president shall serve more then 2 terms or 10 years in officeAmendment 25: Known as the JFK amendment,1) when vacancy opens in Vice President office, President may appoint new one w/ consent from both houses,2) President may temp give up position by written letter to SOTH & Pres. Pro Temp (must write new letter to resume power)3) Vice President and majority of cabinet can write letter to remove President, or 2/3 of Congress can declare the President unable to rule
20 How Do We Elect Our Presidents? Primaries, Caucuses, and the Electoral College
21 Primaries & CaucusesPrimaries and Caucuses are how the parties select their candidateDifference between P’s and C’sOpen vs Closed vs Blanket PrimariesThis is seen as more democratic than the old system of letting party bosses select candidatesProblems: Frontloading, TV/Media, $
22 The Election of the President of the U.S. The Electoral CollegeIs it a necessary evil or an outdated institution????
23 The Electoral College WHAT IS IT? WHY HAVE IT?-Gives power to small states -Check upon illiterate peopleWHAT IS IT?•Every state is allotted votes based upon # of Representatives and Senators. This vote actually chooses the President. **HOW DOES IT WORK?•Parties pick slate of people who commit to voting for their party’s candidate; FAITHLESS ELECTORGeneral Election held270 electoral votes to win (if no winner, election to the House); WINNER TAKE ALL SYSTEM
26 2000 ElectionIn 2000, George W. Bush carried 2,439 counties to 674 for Sen. Al Gore. Bush lost the popular votebut won the election.
27 Historical Elections- Problems w/ the Electoral College Election of Jefferson vs Burr- No majority -Election goes to the House -Result: 12th AmendmentElection of 1824 J.Q. Adams vs Andrew Jackson -No majority -Election goes to the HouseElection of 1888 & 2000 Benj. Harrison & George W Bush become President even though they lose popular electionsElection of 1876 Sam Tilden (D) 4,284,020 Rutherford Hayes (R) 4,036,572How did he win?Tilden- 203 Hayes- 166How did he winCongressional review of election ( 3 states-19 Elec votes)Committee- 9 Rep vs 8 DemCommittee agrees to change outcome in each state
28 Is the Electoral College Fair? California- 55 electoral votes-10.2% of electoral votes-12% of populationTexas- 34 electoral votes-6.3% of electoral votes-7.4% of populationNew York- 31 electoral votes-5.8% of electoral votes- 6.7% of populationFlorida- 27 electoral votes- 5% of electoral votes- 5.7% of populationIllinois- 21 electoral votes- 3.9% of electoral votes- 4.4% of populationAlaska -Delaware-DC-Montana-North/South Dakota-VermontAll have 3 electoral votes (.6% of the electoral votes)But make up only .2% of the population
29 The Executive Branch- The President The Main Roles of the Modern President Are presidents unable to govern effectively because public expectations are too high?1. The President= Chief of State2. The President= Chief Executive3. The President= Commander-In-Chief4. The President= Chief Diplomat5. The President= Chief Legislator6. The President= Party Leader7. The President= Popular Leader
30 The President and the Media Does the media impact politics? Does politics affect the media?
35 The Executive Branch The Modern President The President & The MediaFamous Elections with Media Impact -The 1948 Election- Truman’s Defeat/Victory-The 1960 Election-Television’s 1st Debate -The 1992 Election- The Perot Factor -The 2000 Election-Florida Confusion -The 2004 Democratic Primaries-The Dean Scream
36 The Executive Branch The President & Fundraising General Fundraising Rules FECA-Federal Election Campaign Act A. FEC B. Donation Limits C. Disclosure Rules D. Req. for Matching FundsMcCain-Feingold (Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act) A. Raised Limits B. Soft Money Ban C. Issue Ad limitationsBuckley v Valeo; McConnell v FEC; Citzens United v FEC
37 The Federal Bureaucracy Is the Government ofThe United StatesTOO BIG???
38 The Federal Bureaucracy Major purpose:to administer and implement programs and services,regulate societyAgencies come up with policy ideas, deliver servicesThe U.S. bureaucracy million employeesJobs originally given for patronage,Pendleton Act: changes manner of giving jobs- from patronage to merit/civil service systemBroken into 5 major parts 1. Cabinet Departments 2. Independent Executive Agencies 3. Regulatory Agencies 4. Government Corporations 5. EOP (Executive Office of the Pres.)
39 Executive Office of the President THE WEST WING The Executive Office of the President is made up of White House offices and agencies. These offices help develop and implement the policy and programs of the president.National Security Council (NSC), Office of Management and Budget (OMB)Closet advisors to the President
40 Cabinet Departments15 total department of various size, status, visibility, and functionROLE: carries out broad tasks, provides necessary services, acts as experts in policy areasState- Most prestigious, only 25,000 employeesDefense- Largest department; 750,000 civilians, 1.5 million military personnel, The PentagonHHS- largest budgetClientele Agencies- Depts that represent certain groups of people (power of interest groups)_Farmers- created Dept of Agriculture in 1889Business & Labor- created Commerce and Labor Depts. in 1903Veterans- Veterans’ Affairs
41 Depts and their Famous parts Each department has smaller, well known unitsHome. Sec- INS, Secret Serv., Coast Guard,Justice- FBI, Bureau of Prisons, Marshalls, ATF, DEAHHS-NIH, CDC, FDA, Medicare, MedicaidAgriculture- Forest ServiceCommerce- NOAA, Census, PatentsTransportation- FAA (Federal Aviation Administration, FHWA, NTSB (National Traffic Safety Board)
42 Independent Executive Agencies Narrower areas of responsibilityExamples- NASA, CIA, Peace Corp, Civil Rights CommissionAgency heads are appointed by President; not in cabinet
43 Regulatory AgenciesHave legislative, executive, and judicial functions (are exceptions to the ideal of sep. of power);ROLE: created to regulate important aspects of our economy/societyCommissioners serve a fixed, long and staggered term; appointed by President and approved by Senate (Cannot be removed at will by President)
44 Regulatory Agencies Examples: EPA: regulates our environment for clean water, air, noise, waste, and other emissionsSEC: regulates the buying /selling of all stocks, bonds and other securitiesFCC: Federal Communications Commission -regulates all forms of communications from TV, radio, telegraph, internet
45 Government Corporations Businesses run by the goverment to:Provide a service for cheaper ratesProvide a service that is essentialThe Post Office- 800,000 employees; receives some funding from governmentFDIC- Federal Deposit Insurance CompanyAMTRAK
46 The Growing Bureaucracy 1800- only 3,000 employeesBy ,000 federal employeesUnder FDR- 1.2 million employeesEra of Smaller GovernmentReagan toys with idea of eliminating Energy, Transportation, and Education Depts.Clinton shrinks federal government by 100,000