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The United States in World War II

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Presentation on theme: "The United States in World War II"— Presentation transcript:

1 The United States in World War II
How can the United States use its resources to achieve victory?

2 Mobilizing for Defense
Main Idea Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States mobilized for war. Why it Matters Today Military Industries in the United States today are a major part of the American economy.

3 Americans Join in the War Effort
The Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor with the expectation that once Americans had experienced Japan’s power, they would shrink from further conflict.

4 A Productions Miracle Early in February 1942, American newspapers reported the end of automobile production for private use. The Industrial Response Automobile plants began to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars. Shipyards produced tanker, cargo carriers, aircraft carriers. Labor’s Contribution Women contribute in factories African Americans still faced discrimination Mobilization of Scientists Office of Scientific Research & Development (OSRD) Improved radar and sonar Atomic Bomb Albert Einstein Manhattan Project

5 The Federal Government Takes Control
As war production increased, there were fewer consumer products available for purchase.

6 Mobilizing for Defense Review
How did U.S. military reflect the diversity of American society during World War II? It included large number of white, African-Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and Asian Americans. How did the federal government’s actions influence civilian life during World War II? It drafted civilians and established a system of rationing and other economic controls.

7 The War for Europe and North Africa
Main Idea Allied forces, led by the United States and Great Britain battled Axis powers for control of Europe and North Africa. Why it Matters Today During World War II, the United States assumed a leading role in world affairs that continues today.

8 The United States and Britain Join Forces
War Plans On December 22, 1941 Churchill and Roosevelt met to work out war plans. Churchill convinces Roosevelt to attack Hitler first. Battle of the Atlantic Hitler orders submarine attacks on America’s east coast. Germany’s aim was to prevent food and war materials from reaching Great Britain. Hitler wanted to cut Britain’s life-line. 1st four months of ships were sunk Convoys were formed Shipbuilding increased

9 The Eastern Front and the Mediterranean
By the winter of 1943, the Allies began to see victories on land as well as sea.

10 Heroes in Combat Tuskegee Airmen- 99th Pursuit Squadron
92nd Infantry Division- Buffaloes Company E- All Chicano unit Purple Heart Battalion- Hawaiian Nisei

11 The Allies Liberate Europe
Even as the Allies were battling for Italy in 1943, they had begun work on a dramatic plan to invade France and free Western Europe from the Nazis. D-Day 3 million British, American, and Canadian troops Operation Overlord (Allied invasion) June 6, 1944 Omaha Beach Allies Gain Ground General Omar Bradley General George Patton Aug. 23, Paris liberated The Battle of the Bulge October Americans captured their first German town, Aachen. Germans lost 120,00 troops, 600 tanks, 1,600 planes Liberation of the Death Camps Soviets were the first to come upon the death camps Majdanek in Poland

12 Allies Liberate Europe-cont’
Unconditional Surrender April 25, Soviet storm Berlin Hitler and wife Eva Braun commits suicide May 8, V-E Day (Victory in Europe) Roosevelt’s Death April 12, Roosevelt dies of a stroke Harry S. Truman- 33rd President

13 The War for Europe and North Africa
What was the significance of the Battle of the Bulge? Soviets stopped Hitler’s eastward expansion, destroyed the German Sixth Army, and diverted German troops from the western front. How did the Battle of the Bulge signal the beginning of the end of World War II in Europe? Germany could not replace the manpower and weapons it lost, and could not only retreat.

14 The War in the Pacific Main Idea
In order to defeat Japan and end the war in the Pacific, the United States unleashed a terrible new weapon, the atomic bomb. Why it Matters Today Countries of the modern world struggle to find ways to prevent the use of nuclear weapons.

15 The Allies Stem the Japanese Tide
While the Allies agreed that the defeat of the Nazis was their first priority, the United States did not wait until V-E Day to move against Japan.

16 The Allies Go on the Offensive
The first Allied offensive began in August 1942 when 19,000 troops stormed Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. The victory at Guadalcanal marked Japan’s first defeat on land, but not its last. The Japanese Defense Battle of Leyte Gulf and a new tactic Kamikaze or suidcide-plane “Divine wind” Iwo Jima “Sulfur Island” Most heavily defended spot on earth 20,700 Japanese- 200 survived Battle for Okinawa Japanese send 1,000 kamikaze pilots Fighting ended on June 21, 1945 7,600 Americans killed 110,000 Japanese killed

17 The Atomic Bomb End the War
The taking of Iwo Jima and Okinawa opened the way for an invasion of Japan.

18 Rebuilding Begins With Japan’s surrender, the Allies turned to the challenge of rebuilding war-torn nations.

19 The War in the Pacific Review
Briefly describe the island war in the Pacific. The Allies adopted a policy of leapfrogging from island to island, all the time moving westward toward the Japanese homeland. Why did President Truman decide to use atomic weapons? The U.S. wanted to avoid the casualties that would result from an invasion of Japan, and to end the war quickly.

20 The Home Front Main Idea
After World War II, Americans adjusted to new economic opportunities and harsh social tensions. Why it Matters Today Economic opportunities afforded by World War II led to a more diverse middle class in the U.S.

21 Opportunity and Adjustment
In contrast to the Great Depression, WW II was a time of opportunity for millions of Americans.

22 Discrimination and Reaction
Despite the opportunities that opened up for women and minorities during the war, old prejudices and policies persisted, both in the military and at home. Civil Rights Protests African Ams. Moved to the Midwest James Farmer Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) 1943 Riots in Detriot Tension in Los Angeles Summer “Zoot-Suit” Riots 11 Sailors reported they had been attacked by zoot-suit Mexicans

23 Internment of Japanese Americans
When the war began, 120,000 Japanese Americans lived in the U.S. Frighten people believed false rumors that Japanese Americans were committing sabotage by mining coastal harbors and poisoning vegetables. The War Dept. called for the mass evacuation of all Japanese Americans from Hawaii. U.S. is forced to order the internment or confinement of 1,444 Japanese Americans. Feb. 19, 1942-Roosevelt signed an order requiring the removal of people of Japanese ancestry from California and parts of Washington, Oregon, and Arizona. No specific charges were ever filed and no evidence of subversion was ever found. 1944- Korematsu vs. U.S. Gov. decision was justified on the basis of “military necessity” Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) Compensation for those sent to the camps

24 The Home Front Review How did the U.S. economy change during World War II? Unemployment decreased, women took jobs outside the home, and housing and food were in short supply. What events show the persistence of racial tensions? Racial riots in Detroit, zoot-suit riots in Los Angeles, and the internment of Japanese Americans.

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