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AFAMS Residency Orientation April 16, 2012

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Presentation on theme: "AFAMS Residency Orientation April 16, 2012"— Presentation transcript:

1 AFAMS Residency Orientation April 16, 2012
Basics of Chest X-Ray AFAMS Residency Orientation April 16, 2012

2 Outline CXR Basics Types of CXR Obtaining Images
PA vs. AP Films Obtaining Images Systematic method to reading CXR Common Signs Examples

3 Chest X-ray (CXR) Basics
A standard chest X-ray consists of a PA Image Lateral Image Images read together AP for supine patients Lots of information available on a CXR Be systematic with your reading Always compare to prior studies if possible

4 Basics of X-Rays X-Rays are part of the light spectrum
Unlike visible light, x-rays pass through the human body Pass through lungs without much interference Difficult to pass through bones Place film cassette on other side of patient and capture the shadow

5 Basics of X-Ray Organs absorb X-rays differently and thus their shadow on the film is different Bone: high absorption (film appears white) Tissue: moderate absorption (film appears grey) Air/Lungs: little absorption (film appears black)

6 Types of CXRs PA and Lateral Supine AP Patient facing cassette
X-ray 6 feet away Supine AP X-ray 40 inches away Magnifies anterior structures and pulmonary vasculature 101 cm 1.83 m

7 Comparing Chest X-rays Protocols
AP Preferred method Note heart enlarged, lung fields not as clear

8 PA Image PA Film Read as if patient is facing you (Patient’s left side is on the right of the X-ray)

9 Lateral Image Obtained with patient’s left side against the cassette.
Minimizes heart silhouette magnification

10 Assessing Film Technique
Inspiration Penetration Rotation

11 Inspiration Image should be at full inspiration
Diaphragm at level of 8-10 rib Allows reader to see intrapulmonary structures Poor Inspiration mimics RML Infiltrate Same patient with proper inspiration

12 Penetration Amount of radiation required for a quality image
PA film: should barely see thoracic spine disc spaces Lateral: spine should appear darker as move cadually Examples of adequately penetrated images

13 Penetration Overpenetrated Underpenetrated

14 Rotation Patient should be flat against the cassette
Rotation of the patient will alter appearance of mediastinum Observe rotation by comparing location of clavicular heads Should be equal distance from spinous process of thoracic vertebral bodies

15 Rotation Normal Rotated to the Right

16 Mass vs. Infiltrate Mass Infiltrate

17 Lobes and Fissures: PA Film
A: Minor Fissure between RML and RLL B: Upper and lower boundaries of major fissures

18 Lobes and Fissures: Lateral
B: Major Fissure L Lung A: Minor Fissure R Lung B: Major Fissure R Lung

19 CXR Anatomy

20 CXR Anatomy

21 How to Read an X-Ray Part 1
Patient Data (Name, history, age, sex) Technique (PA vs. AP, rotation, penetration, etc) Trachea: midline or deviated, any masses? Lungs: masses, infiltrates? Costophrenic angles should be sharp (if not = effusions) Silhouette signs, air-bronchograms, pulmonary edema Pulmonary vessels: enlarged?

22 How to Read an X-Ray Part 2
Hilar Region: masses or lymphadenopathy Heart: enlarged, abnormal shape Pleura: effusion, thickening, calcification Bones: fractures or masses ICU Films: looks for line and tube placement

23 How to Read an X-Ray Part 3
It is best to focus on a small area of the film and then scan rather than look at the whole film at once

24 Signs: Silhouette Sign
Loss of lung/soft tissue interface caused by mass, fluid, or infiltrate in the normally air filled lung Commonly applied to heart, aorta, chest wall, and diaphram borders with lung Location of silhouette sign helps to localize pathology Lose Right Heart and Lung border = RML

25 Signs: Air Bronchogram
Tubular outline of an airway made visible by filling of the surrounding alveoli by fluid or inflammatory exudates Causes Pulmonary edema Lung Consolidation Severe Interstitial Disease Neoplasm

26 Signs: Solitary Pulmonary Nodule
Can be innocuous or potentially fatal lung cancer Always compare to prior films for growth Nodules with irregular borders are suspicious

27 Conclusions Lots of information in a chest x-ray
Always read the film in the same order Never skip to the most prominent abnormality, you will miss a small (but potentially important finding) Compare to priors if possible We will finish with some examples of common pathology

28 Examples: Atelectasis
Collapse or incomplete expansion of alveoli Causes: Endobronchial lesions (mucous plug or tumor) Extrinsic compression (mass, lymph node) Peripheral compression (pleural effusion) Linear density on CXR

29 Examples: Pulmonary Edema
Cephalization of pulmonary vessels (arrow) Kerley B Lines Peribronchial cuffing “Bat Wing” Appearance Increased Cardiac Size (arrow)

30 Examples: Pneumonia Airspace disease and consolidation CXR Findings
Airspace opacity Lobar consolidation Interstitial opacities

31 Differentiating Atelectasis from Pneumonia
Volume Loss Associated ipsilateral shift Linear, wedge shaped Apex at hilum Air bronchograms Normal or increased volume No shift Consolidation, air space process Not centered at hilum Air bronchograms

32 Examples: TB TB can be seen as consolidation, cavitation, fibrosis, adenopathy, or pleural effusion depending on stage of infection

33 Examples: Pleural Effusions
Fluid in Costophrenic Angle Blunting of Costophrenic Angles

34 Examples: Pneumothorax (PTX)
Air inside the thoracic cavity but outside the lung PTX appears as air without lung markings in least dependent area of chest

35 Examples: Hemopneumothorax
Lung Air Fluid

36 Examples: Interstitial Lung Disease
Hazy ground glass opacification Volume Loss Linear opacities bilaterally “Honeycomb lung”

37 Examples: COPD and Emphysema
Diffuse hyperinflation Flattened diaphragms Increased retrosternal space Bullae

38 Examples: Rib Fractures
Can you find the rib fracture?

39 Examples: Pericardial Effusion

40 Examples: Hiatal Hernia
Gastric Bubble

41 Hilar Enlargement Enlarged Pulmonary Artery Hilar Adenopathy

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