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Aqueous Reactions Dr. Ron Rusay.

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1 Aqueous Reactions Dr. Ron Rusay

2 Aqueous Reactions There are several general types:
1) Precipitation: An insoluble salt forms from the addition of solutions. (Refer to Solubility Rules) 2) Acid-Base Reactions (Neutralization) generally produces a salt plus water 3) Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) there is a change in oxidation numbers between reactants and products

3 Solution Test Apparatus for Electrolytes

4 Conductivity

5 Electrolytes Aqueous solutions can be categorized into 3 types: non-electrolytes, strong electrolytes or weak electrolytes based on their ability to conduct electricity. A solution must have ions to conduct. Pure Water does not conduct. Aqueous solutions can be tested for conductivity which will determine the degree of ionization of the solutes. It is possible to have full or partial ionization.

6 Electrolytes Molarity (M) = Moles solute / Liter solution Almost all ionic compounds and a few molecular compounds are strong electrolytes. Several molecular compounds are weak conductors, most are non-conductors. Conductivity is directly related to the amount of ionization, i.e. ions in solution. Table salt, sodium chloride, is completely ionized: NaCl(s) + H2O(l) NaCl(aq) M Na +(aq) + Cl -(aq) 0.00M M M

7 Electrolytes Concentrations:
Molarity (M) = Moles solute / Liter solution Concentrations: CaCl2 (s) + H2O(l) CaCl2(aq) M Ca 2+(aq) + 2 Cl -(aq) 0.00M M M

8 Electrolytes C12H22O11 (S) + H2O(l) C12H22O11 (aq)
Molarity (M) = Moles solute / Liter solution Sugars like sucrose are non-ionic, molecular compounds that dissolve but produce no ions. C12H22O11 (S) + H2O(l) C12H22O11 (aq) Some molecular compounds like acetic acid ionize partially (dissociate) in water HC2H3O2 (l) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) M C2H3O2 -(aq) 0.9987M M

9 Aqueous Acids Any compound that provides a proton can be considered an acid. Strong acids are sulfuric acid, nitric acid, perchloric acid, HI, HBr and HCl.

10 Electrolytes How would the conductivity of acetic acid compare to hydrochloric acid?

11 HCl Completely Ionized
Acetic Acid (HC2H3O2) HCl Completely Ionized

12 Aqueous Bases NH3 (g) + H2O(l) NH3 (aq) NH4+(aq)+ OH-(aq)
Any compound that accepts a proton is a base. The common bases are group IA & IIA metal hydroxide compounds. They are strong bases, dissociating completely in water. An example of a weak base is ammonia. NH3 (g) + H2O(l) NH3 (aq) NH4+(aq)+ OH-(aq)

13 An Aqueous Solution of Sodium Hydroxide
NH3 in Water



16 Aqueous Reactions: Neutralization

17 Aqueous Reactions: Neutralization Net Ionic Equations
HCl(aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H2O(l) ___________________________________________________ HCl(aq) H+(aq) + Cl -(aq) NaOH (aq) Na+(aq)+ OH-(aq) NaCl (aq) Na+(aq)+ Cl-(aq) ________________________________________________ Na+(aq)+ OH-(aq) + H+(aq) + Cl -(aq) Na+(aq)+ Cl-(aq) + H2O(l) _______________________________________________________ H+(aq) + OH -(aq) H2O(l)

18 QUESTION An aqueous solution of H2SO4 is added to aqueous Ba(OH)2. The reaction is monitored using a conductivity tester. Predict the correct statement(s). I) Both H2SO4 and Ba(OH)2 are strong electrolytes. II) This is a neutralization reaction. III) This is a precipitation reaction. IV) The light bulb will glow at the neutralization point. A) II B) I and II C) I, II and III D) I, II, III and IV

19 Aqueous Reactions: Acid-Base

20 QUESTION If an antacid contains Al(OH)3 it will form AlCl3 upon neutralization of stomach acid. How many moles of Cl– ions are in mL of M AlCl3? M 0.010 M M 0.030 M Molarity (M) = Moles solute / Liter solution


22 What type of reaction is it?
Write a balanced equation for the reaction. How do you know the state of the products?


24 __ _____ + ____ _____  Al2(CO3)3
QUESTION Given the insoluble compound Al2(CO3)3 predict the ions and coefficients that would be necessary to complete the following net ionic equation: __ _____ + ____ _____  Al2(CO3)3 2 AlCl3 + 3 Na2CO3 also include 6 NaCl on right 3 Al CO32– 2 Al CO32– 2 Al3+ 6 Cl – + 3 CO32– + 6 Na+

25 Aqueous Reactions: Precipitation Net Ionic Equations
50mL of a 0.1M solution of sodium sulfate is mixed with 50mL of a 0.2M solution of silver nitrate. What is the result? Molecular Equation: ?Na2SO4(aq)+ ?AgNO3(aq) ?Ag2SO4(s) + ?NaNO3(aq) 1 2 1 2

26 Aqueous Reactions: Precipitation
Net Ionic Equations Na2SO4(aq)+ 2 AgNO3(aq) Ag2SO4(s)+ 2 NaNO3(aq) 0.1M 0.2M Ionic Reaction (Reactants): Na2SO4(aq) 2 Na+(aq) + SO42-(aq) 2 AgNO3(aq) Ag+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq) 2 Na+(aq)+ SO42-(aq)+ 2 Ag+(aq)+ 2 NO31-(aq) 0.2M 0.1M 0.2M M

27 Aqueous Reactions: Precipitation
Net Ionic Equations Na2SO4(aq)+ 2 AgNO3(aq) Ag2SO4(s)+ 2 NaNO3(aq) 0.1M 0.2M Ionic Reaction (Products): 2 NaNO3(aq) 2 Na+(aq) + 2 NO31-(aq) Ag2SO4(s) Does not dissolve (ionize) 2Na+(aq)+ 2NO31-(aq) + Ag2SO4(s) 0.2M 0.2M solid

28 Aqueous Reactions: Precipitation
Net Ionic Equations Na2SO4(aq)+ 2 AgNO3(aq) Ag2SO4(s)+ 2 NaNO3(aq) Overall Ionic Reaction: 2Na+(aq)+ SO42-(aq) +2Ag+(aq)+ 2NO31-(aq) 2Na+(aq) + Ag2SO4(s) + 2NO31-(aq) Net Ionic Equation: (Subtract Spectator Ions) 2Ag+(aq)+ SO42-(aq) Ag2SO4(s) How many moles? = MNa2SO4 xVNa2SO4 / 1:1stoichiometry M x Vsolution= mol = 0.10M x L/ 1 = mol


30 Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + NaI (aq)  2 2 NaNO3(aq) + PbI 2(s) Write a balanced Net Ionic equation for the reaction. What are the spectator ions in the reaction?


32 QUESTION If you began a reaction with the following ions in solution (all would be written with an (aq) subscript how would you represent the proper final net ionic equation? (Consult a solubility Table.) 6Na+ + 2PO43– + 3Fe2+ + 6NO3–  3Na+ + PO43– + Fe2+ + 2NO3–  No Reaction 6Na+ + 2PO43– + 3Fe2+ + 6NO3–  Fe3(PO4)2 (s)+ 6NaNO3 3Na+ + PO43– + Fe2+ + 2NO3–  Fe3(PO4)2 (s)+ 6 Na+ + 6 NO3– 2PO43– + 3Fe2+  Fe3(PO4)2 (s)

33 Oxidation-Reduction Oxidation is the loss of electrons.
Reduction is the gain of electrons. The reactions occur together. One does not occur without the other. The terms are used relative to the change in the oxidation state or oxidation number of the reactant(s).

34 Aqueous Reactions: Oxidation - Reduction
In the following reaction, identify what is being oxidized and what is being reduced. What is the total number of electrons involved in the process?


36 Oxidation Reduction Reactions

37 QUESTION In a redox reaction, oxidation and reduction must both occur. Which statement provides an accurate premise of redox chemistry? The substance that is oxidized must be the oxidizing agent. The substance that is oxidized must gain electrons. The substance that is oxidized must have a higher oxidation number afterwards. The substance that is oxidized must combine with oxygen.





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