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Human Factors in Product Design

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Presentation on theme: "Human Factors in Product Design"— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Factors in Product Design
Myung Hwan Yun Department of Industrial Engineering Pohang University of Science and Technology










11 Purchasing Point of Product
Introduction Purchasing Point of Product Product Usability Evaluation Method Human Interface Element Measurement Technique Performance Cost Image & Impression Which product do we purchase? 과거에는 제품의 성능이나 가격이 전자제품의 주요 구매 요건이었으나, 최근에는 전자제품의 성능이나 가격 못지않게 제품으로부터 느끼는 감성이 중요한 구매요건으로 작용하고 있습니다. 그러므로, 소비자의 감성을 평가하는 방법과 제품의 감성에 영향을 주는 설계요소를 파악하는 체계적인 방법에 대한 연구의 필요성이 중요시되고 있습니다. Satisfaction

12 Emerging Paradigm of Product Development - Ergonomics in a New Product Design-
Concurrent engineering/Cross-functional team (Andreasen et. al., 1987) Strong emphasis is on efficiency and performance ease of design materials/parts cost manufacturing requirement Ignored customer needs potential demand effectiveness of design product usability (Roozenburg and Ekels, 1995)

13 Identification of Customer Needs
Needs 와 Product는 독립 Functional specification이 Product에 의존 Identification of the need The most important part of product development related to the conceptual design, design selection, competitive benchmarking Importance of customer needs를 파악한다해도 systematic implementation to the design process은 어려움

14 Identification of Needs - Series of Ergonomic Analysis-
Expert Ergonomists Evaluates the Product Matrix analysis Human characteristics Product functions, Human-product interface Ideas New product ideas New product functions Design improvements

15 New Paradigm for Product Development

16 Concept of Product Evaluation
Objects for evaluation and measurement 사용편의성 평가 실험은 보시는 바와 같이 주어진 제품에 대하여 전문가가 제품을 구성하고 있는 여러 요소들의 특성을 측정하는 부분과 소비자가 제품의 감성을 평가하는 부분으로 구성되어 있습니다. 이 실험을 통하여 얻어지는 제품 측정 데이터와 평가 데이터는 평가 모형을 구축하는데 사용하거나, 소비자의 평가 경향이나 특정 사용편의성 요소와 관련된 제품의 설계 요소를 파악하는 자료로도 활용할 수 있습니다. Customer evaluation Measurement of product characteristics Product Evaluation

17 Systematic Design Process
Transforming consumer needs and potential demands to design/function Various models included Hierarchical Analysis QFD AHP, MADM

18 Usability Evaluation Technique
Usability Dimension of Consumer Electronic Product (Han et al, 1998) Image & Impression Dimension Performance Dimension Developing A/V Measurement Checklist 최근에는 A/V제품의 사용편의성 요소를 감성요소와 수행도 요소로 분류하고 그 요소들로 소비자의 감성을 설명하는 새로운 접근방식이 제기된 바 있습니다. 이 연구에서는 A/V제품의 체크리스트를 개발하고 중회귀분석을 통하여 사용편의성 요소와 제품 설계요소 간의 관계를 파악하는 연구를 진행하였습니다.

19 Human Characteristics Variable
About 150 Items on the list Hierarchically Classified Used as a checklist to evaluate the product

20 Performance Measurements(II)
Quality of the resultant task output Subjective performance satisfaction Multiplicity Time Delay Complexity Visual Physiological Bio-Electric System response delay time Acknowledgment delay time Relative system delay Relative task length User input Task length Mode switch System errors Rating Eyelid activity Pupillary dialation Eye movement GSR(Galvanic Skin Resistance) Heart rate Respiration volume and rate EKG(Electrocardiogram) EMG(Electromyogram) EEG(Electroencephalogram) ECP(Evoked Cortical Potentials) Body temperature Blood presure Task Subjective Interface 44 items

21 Image and Impression Measurements
Semantic Differentials DL Scale Paired Comparison Scale Equisection Scale Ratio Production/Estimation Magnitude Production/Estimation Simple Rating Scale Likert’s Summated Rating scale Repertory Grids Favorable/unfavorable user comments Good/bad features recalled by users Frustrations/satisfactions Pleasantness/unpleasantness Absolute scale Ratio Scale Partition Scale Confusion Scale Verbal Reports User Comments & Opinions ECP(Evoked Cortical Potentials) Bio-electric EEG(Electroencephalogram) EMG(Electromyogram) ECG or EKG(Electrocardiogram) Visual Pupillary Dialation Eyelid Activity Eye Movement Physiological GSR(Galvanic Skin Resistance) Respiration Volume and Rate Heart Rate Body Temperature Blood Pressure Psychophysical Descriptive 26 items

22 Performance Measurements(I)
Task completion time Time spent in errors User delay time Time to search the specific commands Performance Measurements(I) Time to learn specific functions Time spent using help or documentation Number of tasks completed per unit time Frequency of errors Frequency of failed tasks Task Subjective Interface Physiological Speed Frequency of losing control of the system Number of out-of-tolerance condition Number of times interface misleads the user Number of repetitions of failed commands Frequency of requests for help information Ratio of task completion and error-free time Ratio of successes to failures Accuracy User idleness Relative user delay Number of commands used to perform task Percentage of functions learned Number of available commands not invoked Efficiency

23 High Touch is a Systematic Approach - Trend Analysis -

24 High Touch는 시스템적 접근 - Functional Transitivity -

25 Relationship Matrix Analysis :Activity vs. Human Characteristics
(number of dots : number of Ideas)

26 아이디어 실습

27 아이디어 창출 쉽고 ! 간단하게! 많은 수로 (한 주에 1500-2000개) 판단은 나중에 다른 사람의 생각에 기초하여
주제에 초점을 맞추어 한번에 한 사람씩 시각적으로 표현(Visual (idea, posted, arranged))

28 Product Function – Washing Machine
Hierarchically Classified Functional Breakdown of the product

29 Matrix Analysis A QFD matrix
Human Characteristics vs. Product Function 152 X 126 cells Based on the question “Can there be a new product function satisfying human characteristics X in the product variable Y ?”

30 Measures Of Design Quality
Number of component parts and product options Percentage of standard parts Use of existing manufacturing resources Cost of first production run First six months cost of engineering changes First year cost of field service repair Total product cost Total product sales Sustainable development

31 Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
Translates the “voice of the customer” into technical design requirements Displays requirements in matrix diagrams First matrix called “house of quality” Series of connected houses

32 6. Technical assessment and
House Of Quality 5. Tradeoff matrix 3. Product characteristics Importance 1. Customer requirements 4. Relationship matrix 2. Competitive assessment 6. Technical assessment and target values

33 Series Of QFD Houses

34 Benefits Of QFD Promotes better understanding of customer demands
Promotes better understanding of design interactions Involves manufacturing in the design process Breaks down barriers between functions and departments Focuses the design effort Fosters teamwork Improves documentation of the design and development process Provides a database for future designs Increases customer satisfaction Reduces the number of engineering changes Brings new designs to the market faster Reduces the cost of design and manufacture

35 Design For Robustness Product can fail due to poor design quality
Products subjected to many conditions Robust design studies controllable factors - under designer’s control uncontrollable factors - from user or environment Designs products for consistent performance

36 Consistency Is Important
Consistent errors are easier to correct than random errors Parts within tolerances may yield assemblies which aren’t Consumers prefer product characteristics near their ideal values

37 Potential Functions Considered

38 The Working Prototype 9 functions selected combination pulsator pulsator elevation ergonomic handle grip power door, self-cleaning tub sloped display panel personal wash program, tub lighting, washing progress display Evaluated to be very successful

39 The Production Model adopted combination pulsator, ergonomic handle grip design, sloped display, new rinsing tool and wash habit programming In the first six month, the total sales was $ 20 million increased the market share of the company from 34% to 42%

40 High Touch - Hit Product-
KOBO Net Profit $ 100 million (1990) AI Remocon Good Response in Market (1989) Hand-Wash Washing M/C M/S : 8% increase in 3 months (1995) Elevator Microwave Oven Top M/S in Korea (1995) Double Compressor Refrigerator Good Response in Market (1996) UF-Type Water Purifier Best Seller Product in Korea (1996)

41 High Touch - Recent Efforts-
Elevator Microwave Oven Double Deck VCR Hand-Wash Washing M/C Pyramid VCR Hands-Free Camcorder UF-Type Water Purifier Double Compressor Refrigerator Movable Air Conditioner

42 CONCLUSION Ergonomic method successfully applied in home appliances product Ergonomics can be efficient and helpful in the new product development Major manufacturers in Korea adopted similar approach New Product Design human capabilities physical limits personal habits cultural characteristics individual preferences Competitive Advantage Personalized products Consumer taste Tailored functions

43 Lessons Learned - Ergonomists in Product Development -
Involve Early in the Development Process Use Process Planning Approval from the Management Documentation Establish a Formal Process Budget Schedule Reporting Don’t be afraid to Fight It is very easy to Do Nothing

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