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Emergency First Aid & Urgent Care Whats Your ER IQ?

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Presentation on theme: "Emergency First Aid & Urgent Care Whats Your ER IQ?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Emergency First Aid & Urgent Care Whats Your ER IQ?

2 Emergency warning signs: Adults Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath Chest or upper abdominal pain or pressure lasting two minutes or more Fainting, sudden dizziness, weakness Changes in vision Difficulty speaking Confusion or changes in mental status, unusual behavior, difficulty waking Any sudden or severe pain Uncontrolled bleeding Severe or persistent vomiting or diarrhea Coughing or vomiting blood Suicidal or homicidal feelings

3 Emergency warning signs: Children REMEMBER…. Symptoms that are serious for a child, particularly a young child or an infant, may not be serious for an adult and vice versa

4 Emergency warning signs: Children Seek immediate medical help if your child exhibits any of the following warning signs of a medical emergency: Severe headache or vomiting, especially following a head injury Uncontrolled bleeding Inability to stand up or unsteady walking Unconsciousness Abnormal or difficult breathing Skin or lips that look blue or purple (gray for darker-skinned children) Feeding or eating difficulties Increasing or severe, persistent pain Fever accompanied by change in behavior (especially with a severe, sudden headache accompanied by mental changes, neck/back stiffness, or rashes) Severe or persistent vomiting or diarrhea

5 Drive yourself or call for ambulance? Does the person's condition appear life-threatening? Could the person's condition worsen and become life- threatening on the way to the hospital? Could moving the person cause further injury? Does the person need the skills or equipment employed by paramedics or emergency medical technicians? Would distance or traffic conditions cause a delay in getting the person to the hospital?

6 Helping an emergency victim Action can mean applying direct pressure on a wound, performing CPR, or splinting an injury. It may also mean keeping the person calm and telling emergency responders what you know of the persons accident, illness or medical history. Never perform a medical procedure if youre unsure about how to do it. Do not move anyone involved in a car accident, injured by a serious fall, or found unconscious unless he or she is in immediate danger of further injury. If the person is bleeding, apply a clean cloth or sterile bandage. If possible, elevate the injury and apply direct pressure on the wound. If the person is not breathing or does not have a pulse, begin CPR.

7 CPR made easy When an adult has a sudden cardiac arrest, his or her survival depends greatly on immediately getting CPR from someone nearby. Unfortunately, less than 1/3 of those people who experience a cardiac arrest at home, work or in a public location get that help. Most bystanders are worried that they might do something wrong or make things worse. Thats why the American Heart Association is endorsing Hands Only CPR. Adults who suddenly collapse and are not responsive are likely to have sudden cardiac arrest and their chance of survival is nearly zero unless someone takes action immediately. Hands on CPR requires pushing hard and fast in the middle of the victims chest with minimal interruptions," at a rate of 100 compressions per minute.

8 Cardiac emergency: Dos & Donts Have the person sit down, rest, and try to keep calm; loosen any tight clothing. Ask if the person takes any chest pain medication for a heart condition. Help the person take the medication (usually nitroglycerin, which is placed under the tongue). If the pain does not go away promptly with rest or within 3 minutes of taking nitroglycerin, call for emergency medical help. If the person is unconscious and unresponsive, call 911, then begin CPR. If an infant or child is unconscious and unresponsive, perform 1 minute of CPR, then call 911.

9 Cardiac emergencies, cont. Do NOT leave the person alone except to call for help, if necessary. Do NOT allow the person to deny the symptoms and convince you not to call for emergency help. Do NOT wait to see if the symptoms go away. Do NOT give the person anything by mouth unless a heart medication (such as nitroglycerin) has been prescribed.

10 Fever: Children Contact a physician for any child with a fever who: Is under two months of age (infants don't have well-developed immune systems and could have serious infections) Has a body temperature higher than 102º F. Looks very sick, is poorly responsive and uninterested in his or her surroundings, is sluggish, and won't suck on breast or bottle Cries constantly, continuously, or without relief Is difficult to awaken Has a stiff neck Has purple spots on the skin Has difficulty breathing Is drooling excessively or having great difficulty swallowing Has a limp or will not use an arm or leg Has significant abdominal pain

11 Fever: Adults Fever in an adult usually isn't usually dangerous unless it registers 103° F (39.4° C) or higher. If it is accompanied by any of the following symptoms, it may indicate a serious or life-threatening illness. Seek immediate medical attention if symptoms include: Pain or tenderness in the abdomen. Nausea or vomiting. Severe headache. Stiff neck that resists movement. Light hurts eyes. Convulsions or seizures. Difficulty breathing. Strange behavior, altered speech. Mental status changes, confusion, difficulty waking, extreme sleepiness. Rash (particularly if it looks like small bleeding spots under the skin).

12 Broken bones If it becomes necessary to move someone with a broken bone, immobilize the injured area first with a splint. If you don't have a splint, make one using a folded newspaper, board or rolled up piece of clothing. In addition: Splint the injury in the position it was found in. Splint above and below the fracture site. Pad the splints to reduce discomfort. Do not try to realign the body part. Avoid making the splint too tight, which can cut off circulation. If the bone is sticking out from the skin (open fracture), do not try to push it back in. Use a clean, dry cloth or bandage to cover it until medical help arrives. Apply ice pack to reduce swelling (except for small children and not directly on the skin). Stop any bleeding by gently applying pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage or clean cloth.

13 Cuts & Wounds Seek medical attention for the following types of injuries: Cuts over a joint Cuts from an animal or human bite Cuts that may impair function of a body area, such as an eyelid or lip Cuts caused by metal objects or puncture wound Cuts that are deep, jagged or "gaping" open Cuts that include problems with movement or sensation Seek emergency care if: The wound is still bleeding after a few minutes of steady, firm pressure with a cloth or bandage Signs of shock occur There is a cut to the eyeball There is a deep cut to the abdomen that causes moderate to severe pain

14 Vomiting & Diarrhea Seek emergency care if: Vomiting and/or diarrhea continue for more than 24 hours (12 hours in an infant) to avoid the danger of dehydration. There is severe stomach or rectum pain. There is a high fever. Blood, mucus or worms are found in the stool. Signs of water loss, such as dry mouth, excessive thirst, crinkled skin, little to no urination, or dizziness or lightheadedness are experienced.

15 Hypothermia-Frostbite Symptoms include: –Slurred speech –Sluggishness –Confusion –Shallow, slow breathing –Unusual behavior –Slow, irregular heartbeat –Other signs may include a lack of sensation in the affected area; and skin that appears waxy, cold to the touch or discolored (flushed, white, gray, yellow, blue or purple). Frostbitten skin should be handled with great care. Do not rub. Gently treat the affected area by soaking it in warm water (100 degrees F to 105 degrees F) until normal skin color appears and the area feels warm again. Cases of severe frostbite may require medical follow-up

16 Nosebleeds Sit with head forward while pinching the nostrils together continuously for at least 5 minutes, or if bleeding persists, for 10 minutes. Do not tilt head back (so as to avoid swallowing blood, which may cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea). Stop pinching the nose if it becomes particularly uncomfortable, or the bleeding is not easily controlled by this technique. If the nosebleed is the result of an injury or blow to the nose, placing a cold compress or ice pack across the bridge of the nose may help alleviate some swelling and discomfort. If a nosebleed occurs after a fall or car crash, seek immediate medical attention; this could be a sign of internal bleeding. If bleeding persists for more than 15 minutes, seek medical assistance. If bleeding persists and is related to a blow to the face, head or nose, physician evaluation is needed to determine whether the person has a broken nose or a facial or head fracture.

17 Some conditions that are seen in an urgent care setting Bladder infections Broken bones or sprains (if bone is showing or limb is deformed - go directly to the ER) Earache, cough and/or sore throat Eye infections Fever (if under 6 months of age, go to the ER) Illness with nausea, vomiting and/or diarrhea Minor asthma-related symptoms Minor cuts or animal bites where bleeding is controlled Skin rashes, sunburns or minor burns, such as one from cooking

18 Henry Ford Macomb Hospitals Urgent Care Centers are among an elite group accredited by the Urgent Care Association of America, a testament to our quality –Shelby Township, Fraser, Chesterfield Township, Bruce Township Emergency Departments in Clinton Township and Warren provide advanced care for stroke, cardiac, sepsis and trauma emergencies

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