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1870s through World War I.

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Presentation on theme: "1870s through World War I."— Presentation transcript:

1 1870s through World War I

2 New Industrial Age Black Gold & Steel; 1870s
Discovery of oil, iron, and steel process Iron 100 miles long 3 miles wide (Minnesota) Coal 33 million tons – 250 million mined Plentiful natural resources; allowed for new industrial growth sky scrappers Construction of city up instead of out – cityscape changes Bessemer process – filter air through smelting = cleaner product

3 Inventions Promote Change
Power of Electricity 1876 Thomas Edison invents incandescent bulb George Westinghouse invents new methods of safer energy This promoted new use of electricity Electric street cars; cheap efficient travel Other inventions Christopher Sholes typewriter; 1873 Alexander Bells Telephone 1876 New products = new lifestyles Effected office work – opened up jobs Sewing machine opened up demand for skilled women’s jobs Freed people from back breaking work – work became unskilled Consumer buy back power – ability to buy cheap goods Increased standard of living

4 1800s Time of Railroad Transcontinental railroad, 1869
Quicker travel; haul more goods, increased expansion, created conflict, raised business United the country – Railroad time Towns – cities on their own time C.F. Dowd suggested the 24 time zones Influenced industries & business Promoted trade along the tracks Stock yards/ grain industries Built town out of nothing Railroad corruption Fake business’s that allowed skimming of railroad funds Contract work to 2-3 times the pay; pocket excess Farmers vs. Railroads = abuse of hauls

5 Big Business New Business Men = Lots of money Social Darwinism
New Business practices Vertical Integration & Horizontal integration Provides conditions for Monopolies Social Darwinism Species adapt and pass traits on to other generations – without help Economists used this to justify non-regulation of economy Free competition in economy ensure survival of the fittest Made sense to 4,000 millionaire Riches a sign of Gods Favor - natural

6 Growth and Consolidation
Oligopoly – few supply the needs of many Horizontal consolidation – mergers; buy out competitors = a monopoly Holding Companies – bough stocks of others Trusts – Trustee’s who ran two separate corporations simultaneously Robber Barons John Rockefeller – Standard Oil Company Paid employees low wages, undersold competitors, Gained control of market…hike prices up. They also set up charities – so all could benefit. Gospel of Wealth defended these tycoons Sherman Anti-Trust; gov’t stated that you can’t interfere with free trade

7 Exploited Workers Long Hours horrible Conditions Laborers Unite
12 hours work days; 6-7 days a week: No benefits; vacation, unemployment, sick leave Horrible work conditions; 675 people killed a week; poorly ventilated, poorly lit; no set clothes Little to no wages; families had to combine for wages 10-20% of kids age 15 held full time jobs Laborers Unite National Labor Union – United iron workers (1866); 300 chapters – 640,000 members – William Sylvis Legalized 8 hour work day Focused on linking existing labor unions Knights of Labor – open membership to all races, laborers, gender, or skill Strikes were a last resort Believed in arbitration and settlements

8 Unions Diverge New Organizations emerge while Unions Spread
Craft Unions = included several industries AFL (American Federation of Labor) 1886 Against long days, poor conditions, better wages Use strikes to gain leverage Some unions reached out to skilled and unskilled Socialism & IWW (International Workers of the World) Basic principles of economy were wrong (Private ownership, free competition) Caused rich to stay rich; poor to stay poor Gov’t control of business & economy Proper distribution of wealth IWW organized to help unions achieve their goals Level playing field with skilled & unskilled

9 Strikes Turn Violent Great strike 1877 Haymarket Affair Pullman Strike
Strike for wage cuts (2nd in months) Strike spread of other RR Freight stopped; 50,000 miles Riots erupted – management & labor RR president called in Troops on Presidents order – strike withered Haymarket Affair Chicago’s Haymarket square Protestors strike against death of co-worker Police came to break up the riot; some one tossed in a bomb – chaos 7 police men killed several workers killed The leaders of the protest were tried and hung Pullman Strike Wake of a depression RR co. laid off 3,000 workers; cut wages of workers Did not cut cost of housing – When hired back – RR failed to raise wages or decrease rents Strike breakers hired & violence broke out

10 Gov’t Pressure on Unions
Union Power = Fear of Unions Management stopped negotiations; forbade unions Yellow-dog contracts – swear not to join Unions Management had support of the courts Organizing becomes difficult Courts created limitations General public became annoyed Many ethnicities became excluded

11 “The Golden Door” Immigrants Immigrants from China & Japan
1870 – mil immigrated to U.S. (U.K. Germany, Ireland) 1890 – Southern Eastern Europe Reasons for leaving: religious persecution, rising population; spirit of reform & revolt. Immigrants from China & Japan 1851 – ,000 Chinese; spurred on by California Gold Rush; seeking fortunes; Helped to build Transcontinental RR Turned to farming, mining, service 1884 Japanese immigrants came to U.S. Hawaiian plantation needed workers High American wages in U.S. attracted immigrants (300,000) 1898 Hawaii annexed; Japan immigration increased Mexico & West Indies 1880 Job scarcity in the Islands & Mexico U.S. residents Natural immigration through wars & treaties (Mexican – American War) 1902 Reclamation act attracted immigrants (encouraged irrigation of new lands – opened up farming.

12 Life in New Lands Difficult Journeys Arrival Cooperation for survival
Steam ship travel (1-3 weeks) Stormy, uncomfortable (traveled in cargo areas) Disease spread quickly Arrival Loneliness, anxiety, inspections, Pass physical examinations, Documentation, Literacy tests (Ellis and Angel Island) - 16 million Culture shock; dealing with unfamiliar culture (Stole money & possessions) Sought their own people; common culture Cooperation for survival Ethnic communities Social clubs, Churches, aid societies Business and Social hubs (China Town)

13 Nativism Americas a “Melting Pot” Nativism (favor toward Native born)
Collection of diverse cultures with diverse methods Immigrants refused to merge into American Society Nativism (favor toward Native born) Anti-immigration sentiments Demand restrictions Only immigrants from certain countries Fear new religions & practices Launch anti-religion campaigns Business refusals 1873 depression intensifies hatred Fear that Asian would work for less pay – undermine the native born laborers Chinese Exclusion Act – banned all Chinese except for a select few Gentlemen’s Agreement (1907) U.S. pressured Japan’s gov’t to limit the amount of emigration to the U.S.

14 Urbanization Attractive City; 1890s & turn of century City dwellers
Opportunity Technology revolutionized old occupations Economic prosperity Cultural opportunities City dwellers Cheap / easy form of living (immigrants) Offered steady jobs (unskilled labor) Cluster of ethnic neighborhoods Common background, support, speak the language, practice customs Americanization Movement Schools/programs provided language courses, taught skills, educations to be American. Urban Culture Provided culture (first moving films, Bill’s wild wild west show, circuses) Leisure (parks and favorite sports)

15 Urbanization and Problems
Urban problems Housing Outskirt homes – poor transportation; long commutes Boarding houses – shared facilities Row houses – family dwellings with shared walls Overcrowding Too many tenants Poor ventilation Infrequent garbage pick-up Transportation Epic centers Pre-industrialization – foot; horse-cart Cable Street cars (1873) Electric cars (1888) 1897 first mass subway City expansion = new means of transportation

16 Urbanization Problems
Water Drinking water (increased pop.= more demands) 1860s limited plumbing Collection of water in pails & faucets (spread of disease) Chlorination 1893 Fire Limited water = spread of fires Structures wood dwellings (heavy use of kerosene & candles) Volunteer fire fighters (no professionals) 1853 first paid fire fighters 1874 fire sprinkler Sanitation Cleanliness an issue (widespread) Horse manure, open sewage, pollution Sporadic trash clean up; people did not do their jobs

17 Urbanization Problems
Crime Increased popul. = more crime Pick pockets, con persons, Thrived on immigrants Gangs created – controlled various areas of city Limited police dept. (first paid police 1844) Reformers Social reformers – programs to help the disadvantaged Social gospel movement – relieve poverty of immigrants (salvation through helping poor) High persuasion of business and communities

18 Reformers Settlement House’s; 1890s
Community centers geared towards assistance of local people’s (education, social services, crafts, reading, arts) Organizers lived at house’s to help solve social issues (Hull house – Jane Addams) Educated middle-class women Established the need social responsibility to urban poor Provide some means of solving these social ills

19 Political Machines Political Machines; 1880s-1890s
Rapid growth, inefficient gov’t, Social Darwinism = Political machine Political machines seized control of local gov’t = graft & kickbacks City Boss’s controlled jobs – preyed on immigrants Use of fraud = guarantee of election Padded elections lists, registered dead people Tweed Ring Scandal (1870s) William Marcy Tweed = Boss Tweed of Tammany Hall Pocketed $200 million ( ) in kickbacks New York Courthouse charged $11 million: project cost $3 million 1871 Boss Tweed captured and ring broken – sentenced to twelve years jail Escaped after two years; was caught in Spain

20 1890s Technology & City 1870 – 25 city had 50,000
58 cities mad same claim; lived in city (industrial jobs/opportunity) Space & accommodations Sky-scrappers – created space Electric transit – neighbor hoods to city centers Elevated (el) trains – annex suburban developments (Chicago 17 – 179 square miles) Urban planning – restore serenity in busy cities City parks; places of leisure Provide soothing atmosphere

21 1890s Photography Educational Revolution High schools 1870-1898
1888 George Eastman develops papers film Encourage masses to develop pictures (amateur photographers) Educational Revolution No schooling = no skills = no participation in civic affairs states required mandatory school (12-16 weeks; ages 8-14) Inconsistent teaching methods Unequal teaching of students High schools Need for higher skilled people 1870 (800) 1898 (5,500) prepare person for industrial jobs Curriculum devised around work (bells, breaks, crafts, etc…) Immigrants sent & encouraged to go to school (Americanization process)

22 1890 Progressives Progressivism – Moral reform
Return control back to people (writers, role of corporations, gov’t more responsive) Attracted middle class peoples – cure social problems – reform city gov’t Protect social welfare, promote moral improvement, create economic reform, foster efficiency YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Agency) improve the youth Moral reform Improve personal behavior (prohibition) Alcohol undermined American culture/democracy

23 Progressivism Economic slump Political Reform
Depression = Questioning of economic (Capitalist) system Henry George & Edward Bellamy criticized gov’t involvement in economy People turned to socialism Journalist wrote about corruption of business (muckrakers) criticized business Political Reform Influenced mayors & governors Better transportation, better parks, municipal meeting houses Taxed big business; appointed special commissions to investigate illegal activities Eliminate child labor; lower working day

24 Progressive Reform Reform Gov’t
Referendum-power in people to create law Initiative-bill originating with the people Referendum-voters accepting a bill Recall-remove public officials Paved way for 17th amendment Pop. Elections of senators

25 America’s Role In the World
America Begins Expansion – 3 factors Economic competition; political military competition; racial/cultural superiority Overproduction of goods Industrialization led to more goods (consumption) America in Asia Open Door Policy (John Hays) Opening of spheres of influence in china ( ) Boxer Rebellion Hawaii American sugar plantations; 1887 Pearl harbor built 1891 uprising against American domination

26 America’s Role is the World
America in Latin America Monroe Doctrine (1820) & Roosevelt Corollary (1900s) Dollar Diplomacy Provide security & markets for goods Nicaragua Mexico Haitian Rebellion “Searching for order on U.S. terms”

27 Spanish-American-Cuban War
Cuba – Market for U.S. goods 1500 – 1825 Spain ruled all in the Latin America 1884 Plantations – poured million of dollars into the economy 1895 – 1898 Cubans revolt against Spanish Rule Spain Retaliates 1896 1898 Spain sent military force to Cuba Sets up concentration camps Eliminates rights of the people Yellow Journalism created (sway opinion) U.S. Intervenes 1897 Primarily to protect American business U.S. public opinion split of the revolution Attempted negotiations between Spain & Cuba (fairly successful)

28 Spanish-American-Cuban War
U.S. intervenes; 1898 De Lome letter – public criticism of U.S. involvement – Spanish official Feb U.S.S Maine blown up Set to protect American Citizens Yellow Journalism went nuts No holding back – “Remember the Maine” U.S. Tactics: Defeated Spain in Philippines Sealed off Spanish in Cuba Sent in ground troops Ill equipped-old civil war guns, clothing, volunteer army Treaty of Paris – 1898 “splendid little war” War lasted 16 weeks; 5,400 Americans died (381 battle deaths) Cuba received independence; U.S. received Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico

29 4 M.A.I.N Cause’s M – Militarism A – Alliances I – Imperialism
Militaries; large countries fighting smaller disputes settled on the battlefield U.S. advised to build up military0. A – Alliances Military Alliances; support each other I – Imperialism Marked by colonialism – looking for overseas markets (production) World wide scramble for empire Hawaii 1898; Alaska 1867l N – Nationalism Desire of countries to be independent Ethnic enclaves Ottoman Empire s Balkan Independence Austria-Hungary vs. Serbia

30 Cause of World War I Powder Keg of Europe Serbian dream
Black, Mediterranean, Adriatic Railroad, outlet to sea, more land Serbian dream Independent & free Serbia Assassination Archduke Franz Ferdinand (July 1914) Black Hand Society Brisk little war; hoped to squelch nationalist hope Alliance system Austria-Hungary to Germany Serbia to Russia to France to Germany Aug. 3, 1914 Great war begun

31 World War I Schlieffen Plan United States Culture
Hold against Russian Swift capture of Belgium/France United States Culture 92 Million / 32 Million immigrants - 13 million from the countries at war War closely followed – opportunities Many opposed the war (preach peace not war) United States Reaction Gratitude – not involved Neutrality – not our war Sympathy – common heritage Strong economic ties with Allies Produced war supplies for war effort

32 U.S. War Neutrality U.S. Paradox Rules of engagement
Remain neutral or attack 2 reasons: ensure allied debt is paid; prevent German victory Rules of engagement British Blockade; Stopped supplies/ fertilizers (750,000 Germans starved) U-boat Answer Counter blockade/stop contraband Impact of attacks visible Carriers sank (Lusitania, Arabic, & Sussex) - May 1915 – July 1916 “Strict Accountability”

33 U.S. Military Build-up War Preparedness
Demanded by the people due to ships sinking U.S. army 379,000 people (Military & National Guard) Instituted a drat to bulk up the military National Defense act (June 1916) Increased military; Increased National Guard Naval Construction Act (Aug. 1916) $500 – 600 dollars for 3 years build-up Tax Revenue 1916 Raise money to pay for war Increase income tax for 1-2%

34 “Peace w/out Victory” Achieving peace? 1917
Germany requests peace (1917) What are war aims? Triple Entente (break up Empires) seek reparations President request U.S. involvement to create peace (Congress) Unrestricted war fare (Germany) Jan-1917 Seeking the knock out punch Zimmerman Note Mexico allies with Germany?! (March 1917)

35 America’s Entrance Efforts for peace fail Council of National Defense
5 American ships sank Threat of American Liberty Council of National Defense Governing board Food & Fuel (1917) Administration Herbert Hoover Raising production; limit civilian food stuffs Meatless Tuesday’s, Wheat less Wednesdays, Pork less Saturdays h

36 War Industries Board; 1917 Bernard Baruch-Investor Governed all
Economy, Industry, Allocation, fix prices Women to work?! Traditional roles Scope of society changes w/ war Captured small piece of work force National War Labor Board Finding significant labor Ensuring pay = the work; price control Recruited labor from all over U.S.

37 War Machines Committee on Public Information Gov’t legislation
George Creel “Expression vs. Repression” Provide information of the war to public Stop public hijnxes; stop criticism Selling of liberty bonds Gathering motivation for war 4 minute men; delivering of patriotic speeches Gov’t legislation Alien/sedition act 1917 Out w/ freedom of speech No criticizing of gov’t 1,500 imprisonments; 1,000 convictions Attacked everyone

38 Population Distribution
Great Migration Labor shortages Southern uprising! Recruiters sent to south to find labor 1910 – % move 400, million Other ethnicities encouraged to work Racial violence erupted; disliked their new presents

39 U.S. to War U.S. goals unclear 1917
U.S. agreed to send supplies; not necessarily troops 1917 AEF is sent; allies unable to retaliate 1917 Italian lines collapse to Austria-Hungry Russia pulls out of war (Russian revolution) Germany can focus on Western front Battle on Western front was a stalemate

40 U.S. WWI Turning of Tide Alvin York (Dough Boy)
1917 – Clear that U.S. was needed: 3 yrs of trench warfare U.S. believed in swift and aggressive assaults May 1918 German’s within 50 miles of Paris – quick overwhelming attacks America helped to defend and push Germany back; July-August American forces with/ Europeans held back German forces Sept. 1918: first major offensive; 500,00 troops vs. Germans (St. Mihiel) Pushed out Germans within 3 days Sept-Oct – battle of Meuse-Argonne; capture German controlled train depot (supply station) 117,000 Americans died in seizing conrol of Sedan Alvin York (Dough Boy) Blacksmith from Tennessee; conscientious objector (religious purposes) Drafted into the war: came to terms with war; During the battle; killed 25 Germans; and captured 132 others.

41 New Technology Weaponry
Big Bertha; Gun 1,800# shells towards the front Zeppelins & Balloons Machine Gun; 600 rounds per minute Chemical Warfare; Sept. Battle of Ypres 1915 (Mustard Gas) Suffocated to French military divisions (10-20 thousands) Tanks Used to rumble through no – mans land Soften the defenses of enemy Air plane – flimsy; little more than dog fights w/pistols,

42 New Technology

43 Western Front Trench Warfare

44 Germany Crumbles Nov. 1918 German navy charged to set sail – sailors refuse Revolutionary councils enacted Socialist leaders & people mount a rebellion Kaiser abdicates the throne German war machine exhausted; militarily, public, gov’t 11th day, 11th month, 11th hour Germany surrendered with no decisive battle War results 4 years of battle; 30 nations 26 million deaths; half civilians Disease, starvation, collateral damage 20 million wounded; 10 million refugees

45 Peace in the World War aims
No clear war aims; 1917 allies attempted aims (failed) Wilson drew up his own (U.S. has no selfish ends) 14 points (Wilson doctrine); delivered to congress Jan. 1918; possible peace solution First 5 points: open diplomacy (no secret treaties), freedom of seas, removal of trade barriers, armament reduction, adjustment of colonial gains 14th point called for creation of international organization League of Nations; a forum for countries to air grievances and solve world issues Allies rejected Wilson’s plan

46 Treaty of Versailles Allies – wanted to make Germany pay
France P.M. lived through two German invasions; Britain P.M. re-elected on “make Germany pay” June 1918: “Big Four” meet to sign treaty; Germany not present 9 new nations created; shifted boundaries of other nations Reparations were meant to cripple Germany 14th point: league of nations Most important point of the conference; Wilson attended in person Gave concessions to Big Four to preserve this point; allowed it to get his point passed

47 Treaty of Versailles Treaty Weakness Opposition to treaty
Humiliated Germany; - War guilt clause No repayment possibilities Russia Ignored Lost territory = to Germany’s loss Stripped of colonial possessions May have helped repay debts Ignored self-determining people their rights (Vietnam) Opposition to treaty Surprised opposition – treaty to harsh; no economic possibilities Henry Cabot Lodge Hated joint economic / military interaction; congress declares war

48 Treaty Debate Wilson & treaty Congress splits
Submitted it to the congress Lodge locked it up in congress Wilson sought the people to ratify the treaty Speaking tour – 9,000 miles, 37 speeches; 22 days Sept. 25, suffered a stroke; Oct. 2. Fragile; recuperating, shut in; wife takes control; Public never rallied to his cause; sick of war Congress splits Three camps; Democrats; Irreconcilables; Reservationists Wanted amendments before passing the treaty; Betrayed America’s freedom of action President refused to budge on article 1

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