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The results of World War II The Creation of the United Nations.

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1 The results of World War II The Creation of the United Nations

2 Background The League of Nations failed to prevent World War II (1939–1945).League of NationsWorld War II Because of the widespread recognition that humankind could not afford a third world war, the United Nations was established to replace the flawed League of Nations in 1945 in order to maintain international peace and promote cooperation in solving international economic, social and humanitarian problems.humankind

3 The organization of the United Nations that would replace the League of Nations had to have real power to intervene and settle disputes before events escalated to war. Any new international body had to have its own armed forces that could keep enemies apart. Between April-June 1945, representatives of 51 countries, including Canada, gathered in San Francisco to define the principles of the new organization.

4 Objectives To ensure collective security by working together to avoid war. To encourage co-operation among countries. To defend human rights. To improve living conditions for people around the world.

5 Creation of the United Nations The United Nations was formed in 1945 to maintain peace, bring an end to war, improve the standard of living for all nations, and to promote human rights. It was led by the security council (Britain, France, U.S., U.S.S.R., & China) and included all major powers of the world.

6 Potsdam Conference The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from July 16 to August 2, 1945.CecilienhofCrown Prince Wilhelm HohenzollernPotsdam occupied Germany The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, held February 4–11, 1945, was the wartime meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization.codenamedwartimeSoviet UnionPresident Franklin D. RooseveltPrime MinisterWinston Churchill General SecretaryJoseph Stalin

7 Changes in 5 months at Potsdam when compared to Yalta 1. The Soviet Union was occupying Central and Eastern Europe By July, the Red Army effectively controlled the Baltic States, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania, and refugees were fleeing out of these countries fearing a Communist take-over. Stalin had set up a Communist government in Poland. Britain and America protested, but Stalin defended his actions. He insisted that his control of Eastern Europe was a defensive measure against possible future attacks and believed that it was a legitimate sphere of Soviet influence.Red ArmyStalin

8 2. Britain had a new Prime Minister The results of the British election became known during the conference. As a result of the Labour Party victory over the Conservative Party the leadership changed hands. Consequently, British Prime Minister Clement Attlee assumed leadership following Winston Churchill, whose Soviet policy since the early 1940s had differed considerably from former U.S. President Roosevelt's, with Churchill believing Stalin to be a "devil"-like tyrant leading a vile system.British electionLabour PartyWinston Churchill

9 3. America had a new President, and the war was ending President Roosevelt died on 12 April 1945, and Vice- President, Harry Truman assumed the presidency; his ascendence saw VE Day within a month and VJ Day on the horizon. During the war and in the name of Allied unity, Roosevelt had brushed off warnings of a potential domination by a Stalin dictatorship in part of Europe. He explained that "I just have a hunch that Stalin is not that kind of a man" and reasoned "I think that if I give him everything I possibly can and ask for nothing from him in return, he won't try to annex anything and will work with me for a world of democracy and peace."RooseveltHarry TrumanVE DayVJ Day

10 Truman became much more suspicious of communist moves than Roosevelt had been, and he became increasingly suspicious of Soviet intentions under Stalin. Truman and his advisers saw Soviet actions in Eastern Europe as aggressive expansionism which was incompatible with the agreements Stalin had committed to at Yalta the previous February. In addition, it was at the Potsdam Conference that Truman became aware of possible complications elsewhere, when Stalin objected to Churchill's proposal for an early allied withdrawal from Iran, ahead of the agreed upon schedule set at the Tehran Conference. However, the Potsdam Conference marks the first and only time Truman would ever meet Stalin in person.IranTehran Conference

11 4. The US had tested an atomic bomb On 16 July 1945, the Americans successfully tested an atomic bomb at the Trinity test at Alamogordo in the New Mexico desert, USA. 21 July;Trinity testAlamogordo Churchill and Truman agreed that the weapon should be used. Truman had previously been encouraged by the Secretary of War, Henry Stimson, to inform the Soviets of this new development, in order to avoid sowing distrust over keeping the USSR out of the Manhattan Project. Truman did not tell Stalin of the weapon until 25 July when he advised Stalin that America had "a new weapon of unusually destructive force." According to various eyewitnesses, Stalin appeared uninterested. It later became known that Stalin was actually aware of the atomic bomb before Truman was, as he had multiple spies that had infiltrated the Manhattan Project from very early on (notably Klaus Fuchs, Ted Hall, and David Greenglass), while Truman had only learned about the weapon after Roosevelt's death.Secretary of War Henry Stimson Manhattan ProjectKlaus FuchsTed HallDavid Greenglass By the 26 July, the Potsdam Declaration had been broadcast to Japan, threatening total destruction unless the Imperial Japanese government submitted to unconditional surrender. Joseph Stalin suggested that Truman preside over the conference as the only head of state attending, a recommendation accepted by Attlee.head of state

12 Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin at Yalta in Feb. 1945. Attlee, Truman, and Stalin at Potsdam. Ju;y-Aug. 1945. During the conference (Potsdam), Truman mentioned to Stalin about an unspecified "powerful new weapon"; Stalin, who knew of its existence long before Truman ever knew through placing spies inside US borders, encouraged the usage of any weapon that would hasten the end of the war.

13 Some Agreements Made Democratization. Treatment of Germany as a single unit. Disarmament and Demilitarization. Elimination of all Nazi influence. DemocratizationDemilitarizationNazi Reduction or destruction of all civilian heavy-industry with war- potential, such as shipbuilding, machine production and chemical factories. Restructuring of German economy towards agriculture and light-industry. Disposal of the German Navy and merchant marine.German Navy All but thirty submarines to be sunk and the rest of the German Navy was to be divided equally between the three powers. War criminals Territorial Changes

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