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Operating Systems Part III: Process Management (Process Synchronization)

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1 Operating Systems Part III: Process Management (Process Synchronization)

2 The Problem of Synchronization Cooperating processes have to be synchronized to avoid chaos Example: Bounded capacity (Producer-Consumer) – Producer: puts new item, increment counter – Consumer: gets new item, decrement counter – Problem occurs when both execute concurrently Race condition – several processes access and manipulate shared data concurrently; outcome of execution depends on order in which the access takes place

3 The Critical Section Problem Each process has a critical section (i.e. updating a table, writing a file, etc.) Basic implementation repeat ENTRY section CRITICAL SECTION EXIT section REMAINDER section until false

4 The Critical Section Problem Three requirements: – Mutual exclusivity - if a process is in its critical section, no other process is allowed – Progress - if no process is in its critical section, and some processes want to enter their critical sections, only those not in their remainders will participate in decision of which will enter next and this selection cannot be postponed indefinitely

5 The Critical Section Problem Three requirements (continued) – Bounded waiting - there must be a limit on the number of times that other processes are allowed to enter their critical sections after a process has made a request and before that request is granted

6 Solutions to the Critical Section Problem Two-process solution – applicable only to two processes at the most shared variables: boolean flag[2]; int turn; do { flag[i] = true; turn = j; while( flag[j] && turn == j); // do nothing do_critical_section(); flag[i] = false; do_remainder_section(); } while(1);

7 Solutions to the Critical Section Problem Multiple-process solutions – Solution is called the bakery algorithm -> based on scheduling commonly used in bakeries, banks, etc. – Developed for a distributed environment – Algorithm on page 197

8 Synchronization Hardware As with other aspects of software, additional hardware features – make programming task easier and, – improve system efficiency If no special hardware, Critical Section can be implemented by disabling interrupts -> may not always be possible – disabling interrupts is time-consuming (message passed to all processors) -> decreased efficiency – example: system clock (updated by interrupts)

9 Synchronization Hardware Many machines provide special hardware to do the following: – test and modify content of a word: TestAndSet(boolean &x): atomically { boolean oldx = x; x = true; return oldx; } – swap contents of two words, also atomically

10 Use of TestAndSet to provide mutual exclusion Variable lock = false, initially do { while (TestAndSet(lock) ); // do nothing do_critical_section(); lock = false; do_remainder_section(): } while (1); Bounded-waiting not fulfilled.

11 Mutual exclusion & bounded-waiting with TestAndSet More complicated, requires the ff common data structures: boolean waiting [n]; boolean lock; Algorithm is given in Figure 7.10, on page 200

12 Semaphores Two- and multiple-process solution not easy to generalize to more complex problems To overcome, use a synchronization tool called semaphore A variable accessed only through two atomic operations: wait and signal wait(S) while (S<=0); // do nothing S:=S-1; signal(S) S:=S+1;

13 Mutual-exclusion using semaphores Variable mutex = 1, initially do { wait(mutex); do_critical_section(); signal(mutex); do_remainder_section(): } while (1);

14 Semaphores Example: We want S2 to execute only after S1 has completed. Var mutex = 0, initially. Process P1: S1; signal(mutex);... Process P2: wait(mutex); S2 ;

15 Busy waiting (spinlock) While a process is in its critical section, any other process that tries to enter its critical section must loop continuously, while waiting for the mutex variable to become positive – this waiting is called spinlock, the process “spins” while waiting for the lock. When locks are held for short time periods – spinlocks are okay. Can be a problem when locks are held for long in a realtime OS

16 Solution to busy-waiting Instead of busy waiting, a process can block itself, placing itself into a waiting queue associated with the semaphore S. A context switch can then take place. When another process executes a signal(S), the waiting process is restarted by a wakeup operation, which changes the state of the process from waiting to ready. typedef struct { int value; struct process *wlist; } semaphore;

17 Code for blocking semaphore wait (semaphore S) { S.value-- ; if (S.value < 0) { add_process_to(S.wlist); block(): } }

18 Code for blocking semaphore signal (semaphore S) { S.value++ ; if (S.value <= 0) { P = remove_process_from(S.wlist); wake_up(P); } }

19 Semaphores Might result in a deadlock P0 P1 wait(S) wait(Q) wait(Q) wait(S) … signal(S) signal(Q) signal(Q) signal(S)

20 Classical Problems of Synchronization Represent large class of concurrency control problems Used for testing nearly every newly-proposed synchronization scheme Bounded-Buffer – Buffer size n; producer puts in buffer; consumer gets from the buffer – commonly used to illustrate power of synchronization primitives – Sample code on Figure 7.12, page 207

21 Classical Problems of Synchronization Readers and Writers – A data object is shared by several concurrent processes – No problem if two readers access concurrently – Problem arises with writers and readers – To prevent chaos, writers must be allowed exclusive access to the data – Code for writer: wait(wrt); do_write(); signal(wrt);

22 Classical Problems of Synchronization Dining-Philosophers – Simple representation of the need to allocate resources properly (deadlock- and starvation-free) – Five philosophers in dining table; each has rice bowl – Five chopsticks laid, each put between philosopher and his right and left neighbor – When thinking: does not interact with others

23 Classical Problems of Synchronization Dining-Philosopher (continued) – When eating: needs to use both chopsticks – Can pick up one chopstick at a time; cannot pick up a chopstick being used – Does not release both chopsticks until finished eating – After eating, philosopher starts thinking again – Deadlock-free solution does not eliminate starvation

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