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UN – Into the Cold War Lecture 3 Professor OMalley.

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1 UN – Into the Cold War Lecture 3 Professor OMalley

2 Eleanors UN Eleanor Roosevelt – first US ambassador to the UN (45- 53; 61-62) US acceded to Charter language allowing for human rights and education and a consultative role for NGOs Specialized agencies also allowed to be used by ECOSOC Human Rights Commission drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights between June 146 and December 1948

3 Eleanors UN Initial push for language on human rights and education is compatible with smaller states desires Initially these tasks seemed peripheral to UN but eventually became central programs Specialized Agencies include FAO, UNESCO, WHO and many more ECOSOC coordination is thru consultation and recommendations Agencies have their own governing hierarchies and their own budgets from member contributions

4 MDGs 1.Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2.Achieve universal primary education 3.Promote global equality and empower women 4.Reduce child malnutrition 5.Improve maternal health 6.Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 7.Ensure environmental sustainability 8.Develop a global partnership for development *Accepted by all members of UN

5 Into the Cold War Problems at the get go! Trygve Lie first UN Secretary-General Norwegian so acceptable to Soviets and US as neutral Soviets saw him as lackey of the West US saw him as a Soviet appeaser Some thought him out of his depth and insecure with what the new position should be Article 99 of Charter – the Sec. Gen. can may bring to the attention of the Sec. Council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security

6 Cold War Begins February 9, 1946 – Stalin announces 5-Year Plan of armament instead of consumption articles February 22, 1946 – long telegram arrives in Washington from Soviet charge daffairs George Kennan (containment policy and countering Soviet strength is suggested) March 5, 1946 – Churchill makes his famous iron curtain speech *Truman administration influenced by all heavily!

7 The Iran Crisis -- 1946 Became first East-West battleground of UN Allied troops occupied Iran to protect Soviet southern supply of oil during war – agreement to leave Iran 6 months after peace settlement Deadline to get out: March 2, 1946 (US and British out in January – Soviets stay) Soviets begin to stir up secessionist movement by Azerbaijanis January 19, Iran rep to UN asks for UN investigation of Soviet interference in Iran (at behest of US) Soviets agree to negotiate with Iran and ask the Sec. Council to endorse the negotiations US puts it on Sec. Council agenda instead

8 Iran Crisis -- 1946 Soviets are upset, so they use first veto ever at UN – to veto Syrian negotiations with British and French to leave their territory – language too weak in resolution Trygve Lie upset that the veto used for such a trivial matter Sec. Council takes up formal complaint of Iran on March 25 – Gromyko asks for postponement as Iran and Soviets are negotiating – US refuses Gromyko says he cant stay for debate and walks out of UN – will the UN survive? Soviets and Iran settle issue – Lie writes memo on behalf of Soviets stating the Sec. Council was wrong to take up Iran – issue stays on agenda for 30 years!

9 The memo How much power does the Secretary-General have? Lies memo was a bombshell Lie presented Chinese presidency with memo from experts on whether Sec. Council taking up Iran was legal – experts said yes, Lie said no At first memo refused, but eventually read into record Australian-Soviet view that Sec.Gen. has unlimited right to bring up issues at Sec. Council wins over US view that Sec. Gen. just to manage business Lie painted as Moscows man in US

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