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Principles of Training

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Training"— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Training
KS4 Physical Education Principles of Training These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. 1 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

2 Learning objectives Learning objectives
What we will learn in this presentation: That training should be carefully planned and tailored to the individual The principles of training How overload is achieved through the F.I.T.T principle Using training zones to improve different energy systems The importance of moderation and rest. Learning objectives 2 of 30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006

3 Principles of training
Improving performance is not just about training more – competitors need to follow a carefully planned training programme. This programme must be systematic and take into account the demands of the activity and the needs, preferences and abilities of the performer. Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation There are a number of principles that performers and coaches must follow if they are to fulfil their potential.

4 Individual needs All training programmes must consider the individual needs of the performer. Before designing a training programme, you need to ask the following questions about the individual: What is their initial level of fitness? How old are they? Are they male or female? Why do they want to train? What is their aim or motivation? Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation The answers will help you to tailor the training programme to the individual needs and abilities of the performer.

5 You need to concentrate on strength training for your arms and legs.
Specificity Specificity You must do specific types of activity to improve specific parts of the body in specific ways. Different events can require very different forms of training. For example, if you’re training for a weightlifting competition, it’s no use going swimming every day. You need to concentrate on strength training for your arms and legs.

6 Specificity You need to train specifically to develop the right…
muscles – if your sport requires a lot of running, work mainly on your legs. type of fitness – do you need strength, speed, stamina or a combination? skills – you need to practice any relevant skills like kicking, serving and passing. Remember that: specific individuals respond differently to the same exercise. Training may need to be adapted to suit the needs of different participants.

7 Remember though – you can train too much!
Overload Overload Fitness can only be improved by training more than you normally do. Unless the body is subjected to increased demands, improvements in physical fitness will not be made. If a physical fitness programme is to be effective, it must place increased and specific demands on the body. If training levels remain the same, then the programme will only be maintaining the participants level of fitness, not improving it. Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation Remember though – you can train too much!

8 Overload: the FITT principle
There are four ways to achieve overload in an exercise programme. They can easily be remembered using the mnemonic, FITT. Frequency – how often you train. Intensity – how hard you train. Time (or duration) – how long you train for. Type – the kind of training you do. Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

9 FITT: frequency How often you should train depends on what you wish to achieve. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence suggests that to maintain health, you should do 30 minutes of moderate exercise 5 times a week. However, if you wish to become an intermediate or elite competitor in any sport, you will need to train much more frequently. Elite rowers often train twice a day! Training is best done regularly, rather than at random intervals.

10 FITT: intensity – energy systems
Aerobic respiration – means respiration ‘with oxygen’. When exercise is not too fast and at a constant, steady rate, the heart can keep the muscles fully supplied with oxygen. Anaerobic respiration – means respiration ‘without oxygen’. If the exercise is fast or intense and done in short bursts, the heart cannot supply oxygen to the muscles as fast as the cells are using it. Images © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

11 FITT: intensity Intensity refers to how hard you work during your training sessions. A good way to measure intensity is to monitor a performer’s heart rate. The harder you work, the faster your heart beats. Heart rate can indicate which energy system is being used.

12 FITT: intensity – maximum heart rate (MHR)
In order to train the correct energy system, you need to calculate your maximum heart rate (MHR). Your maximum heart rate is the fastest that your heart can beat. It depends on your age and can be estimated using the following formula: maximum heart rate = 220 – age Use this formula to calculate the maximum heart rate of: a 16 year old a 24 year old 204 196 a 53 year old a 67 year old 167 153 Heart rate is measured in beats per minute.

13 FITT: intensity – maximum heart rate (MHR)
Maximum heart rates can be shown on a graph.

14 FITT: intensity – training zones
If a performer wishes to train their aerobic system, they should train at between 60% and 80% of their maximum. If a performer wishes to train their anaerobic system, they should train at between 80% and 90% of their maximum. The precise percentage level you train at will be based upon your current level of fitness. An unfit performer looking to improve their aerobic fitness would train at 60% of their maximum heart rate. A fit performer looking to improve their aerobic fitness would train at more like 80% of their maximum heart rate.

15 FITT: intensity – training zones

16 FITT: intensity – training zones
80% to 90% of MHR – Training in the anaerobic zone increases strength and power. As you approach 90% of the performer’s maximum heart rate, training time will have to get shorter and it will take more time for the performer to recover. This is because anaerobic exercise produces lactic acid, which builds up in the muscles. When there is too much lactic acid, the performer must stop. 60% to 80% of MHR – Training between these levels will improve a performer’s stamina (or aerobic fitness) levels. Lactic acid is not produced during aerobic exercise. Performers can train aerobically for much longer periods.

17 FITT: time Intensity will affect the time (or duration) of each training session. The length of session required to achieve improvements depends on how hard a performer is training. To achieve improvements in aerobic fitness, you should aim to spend at least 20 minutes per session in the target zone. However, time will vary greatly depending on the activity the performer is training for. If they are training for a marathon, they may need to spend several hours at a time in the aerobic zone. A sprinter, on the other hand, will need to spend relatively little time actually exercising – their sessions are likely to consist of many short, high intensity bursts with lengthy rests in-between.

18 FITT: type If your aim is simple health related fitness, then the type of exercise you do does not matter very much – it just needs to raises your pulse into the aerobic zone for about 20 minutes. You could even include activities like gardening, walking the dog or just dancing round your kitchen! However, if you are training for a specific event or competition, then the type of exercise you do is very important. Overload can be achieved by changing the type of exercise – for example, you could lift the same weight but in a different way and using different muscles. Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation


20 Reversibility Unfortunately, most of the adaptations which result from training are reversible. This simply means that unless you keep training, any fitness gains will be lost. Fitness will be lost if the training load is reduced (meaning overload is not achieved) or if a performer stops training, for example, if they are injured. Coaches need to ensure that long periods of inactivity are avoided when possible. Endurance can be lost in a third of the time it took to achieve! Strength declines more slowly, but lack of exercise will still cause muscles to wither (atrophy).

21 Progression Progression means gradually increasing the amount of exercise you do. When a performer first starts exercising, their levels of fitness may be poor. If a coach increases the training too quickly, the body will not have time to adapt and this may result in injury. Slow and steady progress is the best way forward. For example, if you were training for a 10 km run, you might start by going for two 30 minute runs a week. You could then increase the time you run for by 3 minutes each week. Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

22 Progression Gradually increasing the frequency, intensity and duration of fitness sessions is an important factor in developing an effective training programme. In terms of type of training, progression should be based on the principle of moving from easy activities to difficult ones. For example, if you were creating a training programme for a novice skier, you would not start them off on a really steep, difficult run.

23 Moderation Moderation means achieving a balance between not training enough and overtraining. Achieving the right balance is very important. Without proper rest and recovery time, performers can become too tired to train effectively and become stressed and irritable. Even worse, overtraining can lead to injury. This can occur through overstressing joints and tissues, or through poor technique resulting from exhaustion.

24 The principles of training

25 Exam-style questions Explain what is meant by the term reversibility in relation to weight training? 2. A rower is planning a training programme to prepare for a 2000 m race. Explain how the following principles might affect their programme: specificity progression Reversibility means that if you stop training or reduce the amount of training you do, the fitness and strength gained will be rapidly lost. Muscles that grew larger due to weight training will slowly atrophy, and strength will decrease. a) Specificity: The training should be specially designed to improve rowing performance over the 2000 m distance – much of the training will therefore be done on the water or rowing machine, with only a small amount of other activities like weight training. Training will concentrate on 2000 m pace, rather than sprint rowing or very long distance rowing. b) Progression: Training will start at a level appropriate to the fitness of the individual and gradually get harder as the race approaches. The rower may train for longer or at a faster pace. Harder skills like starting may be introduced.

26 Exam-style questions 3. John has decided to take his cycling more seriously and is planning a training programme to improve his performance. As part of his training he goes to the gym. a) Which of the following cardiovascular machines would be most appropriate for him to use? Rowing machine Treadmill Exercise bike b) Which principle of training does this relate to? a) Exercise bike is the most appropriate cardiovascular machine to use. b) This relates to the principle of specificity.

27 Exam-style questions Katie is 16, and plays hockey to a good standard. Read the following extract in which she describes her training. At present, I am training three times a week, every week, but at first I only went once a week. I use a couple of different methods of training, but I make sure that I focus on tasks appropriate for my activity. At the end of each session, I plan the next one, gradually increasing the amount of work that I do when I think it’s becoming too easy. Progression – she trained once a week at first and has progressed to three times a week. Tedium – she uses a couple of different methods of training. Specificity – she focuses on tasks appropriate to her activity. Overload – she increases the work she does when it gets too easy so that overload is always achieved. State four principles of training she applies. For each of the principles you have identified, give an example from the extract to support your answer.

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