2 What was the Cult of True Womanhood? It was a new ideal of womanhood arising from women’s magazines, advice books, popular culture, etc.
3 Arose from New Middle Class Post-Industrial Family 19th-Century middle class family did not need to be self-sufficientMen worked producing goods and services while wives and children stayed homeThe public world too rough for women, who were weak and delicate and should stay home;The family became insulated, with kin & community lessening in importance
4 Ideal of WomanhoodPietyPuritySubmissivenessDomesticity
5 Piety Belief that women had a inclination for religion; Woman is the new Eve, working with God to save the world through her pure, passionless love.
6 Purity Her greatest treasure Once married, she has no legal or emotional existence
7 SubmissivenessWomen to be passive, submissive to fate, duty, God and men;Clothing emphasized passivityCorsets closed off lungs and pinched inner organsLarge numbers of undergarments and weight of dresses limited mobility“A really sensible woman feels her dependence. She does what she can, but she is conscious of her inferiority and therefore grateful for support.”
12 Scientific Sexism Women are “physically inferior”: Physically smaller than menLess stamina—they faint moreThey menstruate and are physically incapacitated every monthBrought on “temporary insanity”More delicate - female nervous system more prone to fatigue because of the reproductive system
13 Scientific Sexism"It was as if the Almighty, in creating the female sex, had taken the uterus and built up a woman around it."Reflex irritation: any imbalance, infection, or fatigue would cause a reaction elsewhere in the body.If a woman was sick anywhere, it was assumed that the problem originated in the reproductive system.
14 Scientific Sexism Women are “intellectually inferior” Smaller brains than menSize of brain to body weightAbandoned when it was discovered that female brain to body rate yielded a higher ratioBrain weight to body heightFemale brain inferior and more primitive than male brainPhrenology—the art of reading the skull
16 Scientific Sexism Women: Puberty to Menopause Women must channel their energies into reproductionDiscouraged from intellectual activity b/c blood was needed for reproductive organ developmentEducation took about 20% of women’s vital energyPregnant women must not strain brains or the unborn child would be harmedAvoid strong emotions