Presentation on theme: "Phnom Penh March 2013 Generating the want for clean cookstoves Paul H. Riley Department of Electrical And Electronic Engineering Hagam, Nepal 2007."— Presentation transcript:
Phnom Penh March 2013 Generating the want for clean cookstoves Paul H. Riley Department of Electrical And Electronic Engineering Hagam, Nepal 2007
University of Nottingham Top 75 in the world, > 30,000 students. £350M turnover. Campuses in UK, China, Malaysia with global connections Highly successful researching social and technical aspects of developing country solutions $4M budget Over 6 years looking at social aspects of cookstoves
Historical cooking situation Homo Sapiens cooking is over 70,000 years old The earliest convincing evidence of fire use for cooking appears at the 780,000-400,000 year old late Homo erectus site at Zhoukoudian near Beijing, China 
Current cooking habits Indian Sub continent Sub Saharan Africa Cambodia…. the World 3 Billion people cook on open fire Smoke inhalation causes many health problems. Wood burning is only one source of smoke. Kerosene for lighting also contributes. Photo courtesy Practical Action
There are good reasons the 3 stone stove is still ubiquitous We all have two ears and one mouth. This should guide the solution
Uptake in Rural Areas 100% 20132007 1950 Clean cookstoves Mobile Phones Alone, clean cookstoves are boring. Phones are wanted.. Why? 8% outside China.
World Bank  2011 Research on improved cookstoves dates back to the 1950s; the ensuing decades witnessed large-scale field programs centered on increasing the efficiency of certain stove designs. Over the past 30 years, the focus of the international community has gradually shifted toward the socio-cultural contexts in which the stoves operate. While the stoves themselves may have been simple, their effects on household and regional health and economics have often been complex and far-reaching. In short, many approaches to introducing improved stoves have been tried, with some successes and many failures… From 1980 until about 2002, hundreds or even thousands of artisan-produced cookstove models were developed…
Uptake conclusion l It is not the cookstove design preventing uptake l Nor the funding See Probec work in Southern Africa , . l We must take cognisance of the social context and the techno-social interactions
Social context l To improve health need to remove smoke inhalation from stove and kerosene Used for lighting l How to make clean cookstoves more like mobile phones? To generate the want? l What are the : Inhibitors Motivators
Example of Inhibitors l If the still wont fit No alcohol made Not accepted l Stove had hot spot One woman burnt hand Other 32 stoves were not used l Remove the smoke Insects have a party People get ill Stove bring the demons House eaten by termites Conclusion: If you remove the smoke, solve the associated problems
Improved Stoves inhibitors http://www.research.philips.com/passwo rd/download/password_28.pdfhttp://www.research.philips.com/passwo rd/download/password_28.pdf page 28 http://www.biolitestove.com/ Wood collected too big for stove
Broader based Inhibitors l At household level convince change is beneficial to the Male Female Children l Village Positive grape vine communication is essential Cooperative and village hierarchy have to be supportive Potential disadvantaged need addressing l Manufacturing logistics If it breaks, it will not get used.. Unless it can easily be fixed l Country (government) Balance of payments Profit flows to benefit country not foreigners Reduction of corruption
Motivators Adding packaged solutions although adding cost can make the solution more affordable and generates the want. Stoves that generate electricity are highly motivating for all the family Particularly lights and mobile phone charging
Technology options l There is no doubt that a reliable smoke-free cooking stove that generates electricity, reduces fuel consumption and is affordable, will sell in the 100s millions and give great benefit. l What technologies can meet these requirements? Erikson cycle Stirling engine Steam engine Solar plus clean cooking stove Thermo-Acoustic (eg Score-Stove ) Thermo-Electric (Thermopile)
Generating stove goals l Reduce Wood consumption Smoke inhalation l Improve Health »Reduced cooking smoke, but with ability to disinfect with smoke »improved understanding of modern medicine »Preservation of prescription drugs (cooling) Education, by means of electricity »light at night »access to knowledge through mobile phone and computer »Radio and TV Wealth »Better education »Access to improved farming methods and commodity prices »Business opportunities (sales and maintenance, selling electricity) More importantly this has the potential to significantly increase affordability
Affordability l Cheapest solution is not the most affordable The right packaged solution makes it more attractive. l Stop using kerosene for lighting. Typical kerosene cost = £15 to £30 pa Torches etc. mean kerosene use > zero l Use of LED lights, low maintenance l Need easy-to-use way to monitor electricity So that carbon credits can be claimed. l Low cost entry point uses low capacity battery. Many devices (mobile phones) can be charged during cooking l Total Package aimed at £100, with micro finance
Conclusions l Clean cookstove uptake Dependent on social acceptance Social needs differ widely Solution wider than stove l Need to listen not just hear Question asked do you want to cook stood up, or sat down. First survey 100% said stood up Next survey 100% sat down! The way the question is posed and by whom affects the answer.
Probec (GIZ initiative) l The Programme for Basic Energy and Conservation (ProBEC) aims to ensure that low-income population groups satisfy their energy requirements in a socially and environmentally sustainable manner. It targets rural and urban households, as well as small business and institutions using biomass energy (woodfuel, agricultural residues) for thermal processes. l ProBEC was established in 1998 after inception missions to six SADC member countries marked the end of the orientation phase. The first implementation phase took place between 1998 and 2001 and was co-financed by the European Union. The main activities during this phase was the establishment of the national steering committees, regional workshops, and a series of demonstration projects in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Namibia, as well as the development of national biomass strategy in Namibia. l l The second implementation phase was from 2002-2005. It was during this time, that Biomass Energy Conservation (BEC) strategies were further developed and promoted at a national level. Importantly, the growth of future ProBEC activities took place and specific BEC measures began to be promoted. This included the selection and adaptation of improved BEC technologies, improved BEC options, training of BEC technology producers on technical and business skills and monitoring and evaluation of projects. In addition BEC expertise in the region increased, including assessment of experiences through national and regional workshops, exchanging and further development of expertise through training on project management and building knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS and other important issues that significantly effect the socio-economic status of the people involved. l l Concepts for the long-term promotion of BEC in the SADC region were developed, including the analysis of options for a sustainable model for regional networking, organisational structures and infrastructure, and the preparation and organisation of ways and means to secure sustainability of BEC interventions in the SADC region. l l The expansion of ProBEC to include Tanzania and Zambia also took place in this time but was only completed in 2006. A separate component was established and called the ProBEC SADC North, which included Malawi and the two new incorporated countries. The Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-funded this expansion and GTZ was commissioned to act as the implementation partner. l l We are currently in the third implementation phase and it is in this phase that ProBEC has overhauled its deliverables and its approach. This has dramatically broadened ProBEC's scope with regard to basic energy conservation, and has resulted in the increase of its influence in the SADC region. l Vision Lower income population groups satisfy their energy requirements in a socially and environmentally sustainable manner. l Thus, quality of life of lower income population in selected SADC countries will be improved. l Mission Biomass energy related institutions and private sector in the SADC region have the expertise, resources and commitment to ensure that affordable energy-efficient technologies and techniques are commercially available and widely used in the region.
Probec in brief  l Financing and implement-ing Agency ProBEC Phase II is financed by the Ministry of Economic Co-operation, Germany, and implemented by the Deutsche Ge-sellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (German Technical Cooperation) Past phases and achievements Orientation phase (1997-1998): Inception missions to 6 SADC coun-tries, national workshops, development of proposal for implementation l 1st Implementation Phase (1998-2001, co-financed by EU): Set-up and functioning of national steering committees; Realisation of regional workshops (planning, training, information exchange/networking); dem-onstration projects in full implementation in Malawi (2), Zimbabwe (2), Mozambique and Namibia; demo-projects in preparation in Lesotho and South Africa; Development of National Biomass Energy Strategy in Namibia.
Probec 2010  l 84% of the schools were exclusively using rocket stoves when cooking, while 16% were using both l rocket stoves and three stone fire. The three stone fire was used for a number of reasons: in some l 2010 Impact Assessment for Institutional Rocket stoves Malawi l 11 l schools, users claimed they did not have enough stoves and so resorted to using the three stone fire so l that they can cook enough food. In some schools, the users said that they use the three stone fire on l days when wood is wet because such wood does not burn well in the stoves while the fire dries it out. l Only one school, in Zomba district, people use the three stone fire instead of the IRS because they do l not want to carry the stove to and from the kitchen, due to its heavy weight, even though the store l room is less than ten meters from the kitchen.
Probec  l Table 1: Advantages of institutional rocket stoves l ADVANTAGES OF ROCKET STOVES l ACCORDING TO USERS l RESPONSE l Yes No l 1. Fuel saving 49 1 l 2. Clean Kitchen 21 29 l 3. Cook fast (saves time) 38 12 l 4. Less smoke 42 8 l 5. Less burns, accidents 35 15 l 6. Better taste of food 32 18 l 7. Less respiratory and eye l disease l 26 24 l 8. More comfort 37 13 l 9. Saves money 3 47
l Outside china 50 million improved cookstoves l 2.5 B people outside china assuming 4 people per stove = 8%