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Clinic Organisation Echelon 1 - 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Clinic Organisation Echelon 1 - 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Clinic Organisation Echelon 1 - 2

2 Programme 1 2 3 4 5 Equipping a clinic Ordering insulin Patient safety
External partners and donors Diabetes camps Patient safety Ordering insulin

3 Equipping a clinic

4 Echelons of care Echelon 1 Primary care facilities
Hospitals where children with diabetes are rarely seen Goals: Diagnosis of diabetes Recognise the role of insulin Understand principles and priorities of treating children with diabetes Understand storage and use of insulin Assist with continuing care Local support of the child with diabetes If you are working at an echelon 1 facility, this slide is a reminder of what is expected of your facility in the management of children with diabetes .

5 Echelon 1: Equipment (1) Blood glucose meter with test strips
Urine strips for glucose, ketones & protein Benedict’s solution, test tube and spirit lamp Blood pressure set (child and adult cuffs) Weigh scale Height measure Height and weight charts The equipment that you will need includes read off this list.. Those items in red indicate equipment that would be good to have but not essential. ELOUISE BARRET United Kingdom Elouise has type 1 diabetes

6 Echelon 1: Equipment (2) Regular insulin
Intermediate or long-acting insulin 100 U/ml syringes with needles Drip setting equipment and IV fluids Chart for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus Chart with emergency treatment of DKA Chart with management of sick days

7 Echelon 1: Support Communication chain with access to an echelon 2-4 centre Access to transport A paper-based recording system LIAM & JORDAN CARSTENS South Africa Liam & Jordan have type 1 diabetes

8 Echelon 2 Echelon 1 Echelon 2
Have basic exposure to diagnosis and treatment of diabetes Have insulin and diabetes supplies on site Know how to start treatment with insulin Recognize and start basic measures for DKA Distribute insulin and diabetes supplies to patients Supervise care prescribed by an echelon 3 facility For those of you that work at echelon 2 facilities, this is a reminder of roles that you fulfil.

9 Echelon 2: Staffing Project officer responsible
Order supplies Collect and record data Distribute insulin, needles, syringes and diabetes supplies One or more clinic personnel would have attended a specialised workshop on the care of diabetes in childhood Healthcare worker for administering the data collection and management of stocks of medications You would need at your facility, dedicated or additional staffing to do the following tasks.

10 Echelon 2: Equipment (1) Glucose meters and strips
Filter paper strip for HbA1c determination or HbA1c point of care analyzer Urine microalbumin strips Urine glucose and ketone strips Refrigerated storage and insulin supplies Stadiometer Weigh scale Equipment needed would include ….

11 Echelon 2: Equipment (2) Be able to send samples for laboratory testing A computer to enter demographic data as part of a central registry A computer programme to track attendees and defaulters Display diagnosis posters LIAM CARSTENS South Africa Liam has type 1 diabetes

12 Equipment for in-patient care
Blood glucose meter Access to laboratory measurements IV fluids for DKA management IV infusion pump/3-way tap /Y connector Chart for DKA management Copies of the treatment plan (completed) In addition, you would have an inpatient facility that would take of short term patients. This part of your facility should have the following.

13 Teaching support Recording booklets (diaries) Diabetes support group
Charts for: Routine diabetes clinic visit Sick days Managing DKA patient Teaching insulin injections Blood and urine testing Simple dietetic advice Information for schools Recording booklets (diaries) Diabetes support group For your teaching functions, you would need….

14 Ordering insulin

15 Maintaining supply of insulin
Insulin is a life-saving drug Crucial to keep adequate supplies at the clinic Needs transportation and storage at 2-8o C It has a limited shelf life – take note of expiry dates Excess stocks of insulin should be returned as soon as it is confirmed that they are not needed Insulin is a life-saving drug. It is therefore crucial to order and keep adequate supplies at the clinic to cater for existing and any new patients, who may come before the next batch of insulin arrives. Insulin needs to be transported and stored at 2-8o C. It has a limited shelf life of approximately 30 months from the date of manufacturing. Excess stocks of insulin should be returned as soon as it is confirmed that they are not needed.

16 Ordering insulin Should have at least double the amount needed by the hospital between resupply intervals 2 groups who require insulin  Existing patients New type 1 diabetes patients Insulin requirements increase with growth Increased requirement for illness / DKA The clinic or hospital should ideally have on hand at least double the amount needed by the hospital between resupply intervals. For example, if the central medical supply store will send supplies of insulin to the hospital every four months, then the programme director should aim to have on hand enough supplies for existing and projected patients for an eight-month period. Two groups of patients will require insulin: existing patients, who get their supplies through this clinic or hospital and new type 1 diabetes patients Children can be expected to require an increasing amount of insulin as they grow. Type 1 diabetes patients with other concurrent illnesses or diabetic ketoacidosis will temporarily need higher doses of insulin.

17 Information needed How many vials or units of insulin did your centre use last year? Was it enough? When was there a shortage of insulin during the year? Do you know the cause? How many patients are in your clinic or centre now? How many new patients tend to come each year (on average)? information needed for calculating insulin requirements include  knowing how many vials or units of insulin did your centre use last year? Was it enough? During which months of the year was there a shortage of insulin? Do you know the cause? How many patients are in your clinic or centre now? How many new patients tend to come each year (on average)? When making your calculations, bear in mind the following: If information about the total number of patients per year is not available, estimate it from number of patients in the last month x 12, or last 3 months x 4, and so on. If your patients come on average every 3-4 months to collect medicine, the number of patients over the last 3-4 months will be the number of patients in your clinic. Some places get seasonal surges – eg due to weather, road conditions and so on. As type 1 diabetes (among others in children) becomes more widely recognised, there may be an increasing number of patients diagnosed. (Before type 1 diabetes was well recognised, they may well have died before being diagnosed.)

18 Patient safety

19 Patient safety Children and adolescents with diabetes who are not well controlled (i.e. high Hb1C) are vulnerable to infection Infection can cause DKA Nosocomial infections possible during clinic visitS Safety programme (WHO) People with diabetes, and especially children, are vulnerable to infections. Respiratory disease or gastro-enteritis may lead to DKA, and have major consequences. Healthcare professionals are exposed to contamination and can convey infectious diseases if they do not protect themselves. They expose their family and other people if they do not wash their hands carefully and change their clothes when leaving the clinic. Also, in the ward, and during the medical examination, the attitude and actions of the health care professionals is a learning opportunity for the child and family. Nosocomial infections are infections contracted during a stay in the medical environment, and are a very serious public health problem all over the world. Because of this, the World Heath Organization (WHO) has developed a Patient Safety programme, with guidelines and explanations how to produce locally cheap, but efficient, disinfectant solutions.

20 Safety programme Wash hands before and after examinations
Use standard precautions Clean and disinfect equipment Specimen transport to the laboratory Handling and disposing of sharp and contaminated items Ensure that the clinic is well ventilated Regular cleaning For these reasons, the diabetes clinic should become a model of safe care by always remembering to: Wash hands before and after physical examinations Use standard precautions when caring for a patient with an acute, febrile, respiratory illness Ensure cleaning and disinfection of reusable equipment between patients Follow applicable regulations and requirements for specimen transport to the laboratory Use standard precautions when handling and disposing of sharps and contaminated items Ensure that the clinic is well ventilated, and appropriately and regularly cleaned with water and usual detergent on soiled and/or frequently touched surfaces (e.g. door handles).

21 Diabetes camps

22 Diabetes camps Camps are a great source of learning and support for both children and professionals Can be organised just for children or just for adolescents Can also include other family members, parents, siblings Goal is to share knowledge about living with childhood diabetes Live with other children who have diabetes for a few days Teaching by healthcare professionals, children and parents Diabetes camps are a great source of learning and support and are a valuable feature of childhood diabetes programmes across the world.  The goal of a children’s diabetes camp is to share knowledge about living with childhood diabetes, by living for a few days in company with other children/young people who also have diabetes. Particularly with small children, parents or carers should be there and take part alongside the child, so that they are given the opportunity to learn more about caring for diabetes and the problems it can give the child.  At the camp, it is not only the healthcare professionals who are doing the teaching. Children and their parents also learn from each other, and their views and suggestions can help the professionals to offer the sort of medical care and support that really makes a difference.

23 Goals of the camps Knowledge and confidence to:
Give injections Test glucose levels Estimate food portions Deal with other illnesses Understand why diabetes in children is different from adult diabetes Learn how to live a normal life with diabetes with peer-to-peer teaching and role modelling Parents learn how to give emotional and practical support to the child The camp has several teaching aims: including giving children and their parents the knowledge and confidence to give injections, test glucose levels, estimate food portions, deal with other illnesses, and why diabetes in children is different from adult diabetes. It is also a way to demonstrate and explain how to use this knowledge to live a normal life with diabetes. Finally it helps to explain to parents how to give emotional and practical support to the child Any activity that can fulfill these three objectives can be used as part of a diabetes camp. Sport activities can help to illustrate to the children how to adjust their dosage to physical activity, cooking with the children can involve a conversation on diet and nutrition, and so on. Practical ideas on how to establish and run camps is included in the manual.

24 External partners and donors

25 External partners & donors
Reinforce the development of your clinic with support from external partners and donors Knowledge Manpower Resources Skills Experience Process and considerations in manual You may reach situations that require that you consider reinforcing the development of your clinic. On occasion this development would require support from external partners and donors. Development may occur in a number of different areas including knowledge, manpower, resources, skills and experience. The process of accessing support and other considerations are included in the manual.

26 Organizations ISPAD (
International Diabetes Federation (IDF) ( World Diabetes Foundation (WDF) ( Life for a Child ( Children with Diabetes ( Rotary Club ( Lions Club ( Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) ( Among these organizations are the following. There are numerous other organizations that you may also approach. More details on these organizations are included in the manual.

27 Questions Take questions

28 28 Changing Diabetes® and the Apis bull logo are registered trademarks of Novo Nordisk A/S Take questions

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