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The Three Monotheistic Religions

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1 The Three Monotheistic Religions
Mrs. Jones’ 7th Grade Social Studies Judaism Christianity Islam

2 Why Study Religion? 1. Religion plays an important role in history and culture. Ex. Sept.11,2001 2. This is not a devotional study but academic. We will be fair and balanced. 3. We need to understand the U.S. 1st amendment rights – freedom of religion for all – not just the people that believe as we do. **To understand the history and culture of the middle east (Southwest Asia) we need to know the basic facts about the three religions that started here - Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

3 Monotheism is the belief in ONE god.

4 Covenant An agreement between God and Abraham; God promised Abraham and his descendants the land of Israel; they are the chosen people.

5 3 World Religions Family Tree
“Father of all 3 religions” Abraham Founder of Judaism (about 4000 yrs. ago) Sarah “Wife” Hagar “Sarah’s Servant” Isaac (Abraham’s 1st born son from marriage.) Ishmael (Abraham’s 1st born) Moses The prophet who received “The Ten Commandments” After Isaac was born, Hagar and Ishmael cast out and sent back to Arab lands. Jesus “Founder of Christianity” (about 2000 yrs. ago) Muhammad “Founder of Islam” (about 1400 yrs ago) -Prophet for Muslims-

6 Judaism Judaism is the oldest of the three religions.
Name for God – Yahweh (Hebrew for GOD) Holy Book – The Torah (1st five books of the Bible) The Torah holds all of God’s laws including the Ten Commandments.

7 Judaism Major Beliefs God made a covenant with Abraham – his descendants are the chosen people and the land of ‘Israel’ belongs to them. Follow God’s commandments (The Ten Commandments – How to lead a good and moral life.) Fast during Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement)

8 Judaism Practices/Rituals/ Major Holidays
Eat Kosher foods. – No pork or shellfish. Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) – Most important holiday. Rosh Hashanah – Jewish New Year Hanukkah Passover

9 Judaism Worship Services Three Sects/Groups
Day of Worship – Saturday Place Synagogue or Temple Religious Leader – Rabbi Three Sects/Groups Orthodox Conservative Reform Founder – Abraham (nearly 4000 yrs. ago) Followers are called – Jews Holy City - Jerusalem

10 Christianity

11 Christianity – Largest
Quick Facts Christianity – Largest Most followed religion worldwide. Symbol: Cross

12 Christianity Name for God: God Holy Book: Bible
Old Testament – history of law and prophets New Testament – includes four Gospels – stories of Jesus’ life

13 Major Beliefs 1. Trinity – God, the Father; the Son (Jesus), the Holy Spirit (God’s presence on Earth) 2. Jesus is the Savior 3. Pray 4. Follow 10 Commandments 5. Charity (Love thy Neighbor)

14 Practices/Rituals/Major Holidays
1.Baptism 2.Communion – Lord’s supper; reenacts Jesus’ last dinner before His death. 3.Easter – Holiday that Christianity was based on … Most important! 4.Christmas – Holiday celebrating Jesus’ birth.

15 Christianity Worship Services
Day of Worship - Sunday Place – Church Religious Leader - Priests, Preacher, or Pastor.

16 Christianity Sects/Groups of Christians Catholic (oldest)
Protestant – Originated as a PROTEST to Catholic church Ex. Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, Lutherans, etc. Orthodox Founder - JESUS Name for follower – CHRISTIAN Holy City - Jerusalem

17 Judaism vs. Christianity

18 Islam Islam is the youngest of the three. Name for God – Allah
Same God as Judaism and Christianity just a different name. Holy Book – Koran or Qur’an (pronounced the same)

19 Islam Major Beliefs Five Pillars of Faith (How a Muslim shows his/her devotion) There is no God but Allah. Pray 5x per day facing Mecca. Give to charity/poor. Fast during Ramadan. Pilgrimage to Mecca once in your lifetime. Believe in all of the same prophets as in the bible.

20 Practices/Rituals/Major Holidays
Can’t eat pork or drink alcohol. Fast during Ramadan. Holidays – Ramadan -lasts an entire month and is celebrated because they believe this is the time that Muhammad spent on the mountain receiving the word of Allah (God).

21 They disagree on who should
Islam Cont. Worship Services Day of Worship - Friday Place - Mosque Religious leader – Cleric Sects/Groups : Sunni Shi’ite or Shia They disagree on who should lead the Muslim world.

22 Islam Cont. Founder – Muhammad Followers called – Muslim Holy cities –
Mecca / Makkah (pronounced the same) Jerusalem

23 Quick Facts Holy City: Jerusalem All three religions
Started here in the Middle East. … They all consider Jerusalem a holy city.


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