2 Introduction WHAT IS THE FRONTIER? It is the furthest extent of settled landIt is the open range of the midwest and west
3 WHAT IS MANIFEST DESTINY? The belief that the United States was destined to control north America from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Canada to Mexico
4 WHY MOVE WESTWARD? Country—growth and pride Land—fresh, cheap; a refugeWealth—mining and agricultureAdventure—new challenges; leavethe past behindReligious freedom
5 Louisiana Purchase (1803)13 Original ColoniesRed River Basin (1818)Oregon Country (1846)War for Independence (1783)Mexican Cession (1848)Gadsden Purchase (1853)Florida Purchase (1819)Mexican Annexation (1845)
6 MOVING WESTA. The U.S. controlled the continent from coast to coast, but the land “in the middle” was not settled or developed
7 B. The Government Passes Legislation to grant land 1. Pacific Railway Acts of & 1864 gave railroad companies 10 square miles of land on each side of the track for every mile of track laid >> they resold the land to settlers
8 2. Morrill Land Grant Act (1862). distributed millions of acres 2. Morrill Land Grant Act (1862) distributed millions of acres of land to state governments >> they could sell the land to found “land-grant” colleges3. Homestead Act (1862) offered 160 acres of land to settlers whoa. were 21 or heads of families
12 b. were citizens or immigrants who had applied for citizenship c. paid a $10 registration feed. built a house within 6 monthse. farmed the land for 5 years before claiming ownership
13 4. Oklahoma Act of 1889. opened the last of the 4. Oklahoma Act of opened the last of the frontier to new settlers; the “Sooners” sneaked into the territory before the official start and claimed the best land
14 Base camp before the 1889 land run Base camp before the 1889 land run. Boomers at Arkansas City, Kansas, Photographer: William S. Prettyman.
15 Boomers on Kansas state line, April 19th, 1889. Photographer: William S. Prettyman.
16 Waiting for land run at Purcell, Oklahoma Territory, 1889 Waiting for land run at Purcell, Oklahoma Territory, Photographer: William S. Prettyman.
19 C. People Who Moved West1. Speculators: people who bought large areas of land in hopes of reselling it for a profit2. Homesteaders: people who rushed to accept offers of free land
20 3. Exodusters: African-. American settlers who. moved west; took their 3. Exodusters: African- American settlers who moved west; took their name from the biblical account of the Jews escaping slavery in Egypt4. Solid Folk: people who settled down if they liked it or returned east if they didn’t
21 This poster urges Exodusters to move from Kentucky to Kansas This poster urges Exodusters to move from Kentucky to Kansas. Kansas State Historical Society
22 "Negro Exodusters en route to Kansas, fleeing from the yellow fever, " Photomural from engraving. Harpers Weekly, 1870.
23 Exodusters waiting for a steamboat to carry them westward in the late 1870's.
24 5. Boomers: people who kept. relocating from town to 5. Boomers: people who kept relocating from town to town looking for a quick fortune, but seldom staying long enough to make a livingD. Problems Facing Settlers1. The extremely poor couldn’t afford the “free” land
25 2. Land companies claimed most of the land, not individuals 3. Resettlement of the Native Americans4. The “Anglos” (white easterners) overwhelmed the Mexicanos (Spanish- speaking westerners) who lived in the area
26 5. Scarce resources (water, trees, etc.) 6. Harsh climate (blizzards in winter, heat in summer, prairie fires, insects)7. Squatters moved onto land that did not belong to them
27 FARMING THE WEST A. Overcoming Problems 1. Irrigation systems used dams, canals and sloping fields to control water flow2. Windmills drew water from below ground3. Settlers burned dried buffalo manure and built houses of sod
30 B. New Farming Techniques 4. The government created the Department of Agriculture to help the farmerB. New Farming Techniques1. New equipment: “self-binding” harvester, combine, chilled- iron plow (James Oliver), seed-drill2. Barbed wire
36 3. Bonanza farms: farms owned. by large companies and 3. Bonanza farms: farms owned by large companies and operated like factories with machinery, professional managers and specialized laborers4. Dry farming: planting crops that require less water and keeping fields free of weeds
37 Aerial view of bonanza farm in the late 1800’s to early 1900s.
38 C. Complaints of the Farmers 1. Low agricultural prices – increased output, competition2. Insufficient and expensive credit – high interest rates, defaults on loans3. High rates charged by middlemen
39 4. High industrial prices – machinery, etc. 5. Tariffs favored industry and hurt agriculture6. Demonetizing of silver (no more minted coins made from silver)
40 D. Responses of the Farmers 1. Granger Movement (Patrons of Husbandry) – an organization of local farmers’ clubs to protect their interestsa. cooperatives: groups of farmers who pooled their resources to share work and buy supplies
43 b. wholesale: buying or. selling something in. large quantities to b. wholesale: buying or selling something in large quantities to lower pricesc. worked to advance political interest of farmersd. provided social activities
44 2. Farmers’ Alliance: organized. to unify concerns of farmers 2. Farmers’ Alliance: organized to unify concerns of farmers with miners and factory workers3. The Populist Partya. farmers and labor unions formed a new political party1) free and unlimited coinage of silver
45 2) graduated income tax3) government ownership of transportation and communication systems4) shorter working hours5) restrictions on immigrationb. the party was short-lived – Democrats adopted some policies & prosperity returned
46 RAILROADS & MINING A. A Rush for Gold. 1. People had been looking for gold since the ’49 rush in California2. Discovery of silver in Nevada (the Comstock Lode) led to more strikes3. By the late 1800s people flocked to the West, Canada, and Alaska
49 B. Mining Techniques 1. Panning 2. Placer mining: shoveled loose dirt into boxes and then ran water over it, causing the heavy materials to sink to the bottom3. Patio Process: using mercury to extract silver from ore
53 4. Hydraulic mining: water shot. at high pressure ripped away 4. Hydraulic mining: water shot at high pressure ripped away gravel and dirt to expose the minerals beneath5. Hard-rock mining: sinking deep shafts to obtain ore locked in veins of rock
54 C. “Boom to Bust” GOLD OR SILVER STRIKE Miners arrive to build a tent cityMerchants arrive to supply minersWood-frame structures replace tentsBOOM TOWNMining production fallsMiners move onStores close and merchants leaveTown is abandonedGHOST TOWN
55 D. Mining: An Overview 1. Few people struck it rich 2. Once the easily accessible deposits were “worked out”, only large companies could afford to mine3. More money could be made supplying the miners than mining4. Lawlessness and violence were common in mining areas
56 E. Railroaders1. The federal government helped the railroad companies because it would benefit the entire nation; a subsidy is financial aid from the government2. Two railroad companies started a transcontinental railroad
57 Transcontinental Railroad Central PacificUnion PacificPromontory Point, UT 1869
58 3. the completion of the railroad. sparked a spirit of unity in 3. the completion of the railroad sparked a spirit of unity in the country4. The railroads allowed for rapid transport of people and supplies5. New states admitted (NV, CO, ND, MT, WA)
59 F. Problems with the railroad 1. labor was scarce >> dangerous, low pay, hard work2. high rates because of no competition3. discrimination regarding rates >> rebates to large shippers, rural service high4. corruption >> bribery, free passes to government officials
60 RANCHERS & COWHANDS A. Ranching in the West 1. Spaniards raised Texas longhorns in the Southwest2. Sheepherding also profitable, but conflicted with cattle3. The government allowed cattle ranchers to use public lands as open range (free grazing land)
61 4. Families and large companies. established ranches with vast 4. Families and large companies established ranches with vast grassland to feed their herds5. During the round-up, ranchers would drive their cattle from the open range to a central location
62 B. The Cattle Industry1. Ranchers employed cowhands to tend cattle and drive herds to market2. A cowboy’s skills and dress came from Spanish and Mexican vaqueros
63 3. The cattle drives followed. specific routes leading to 3. The cattle drives followed specific routes leading to railheads, where the cattle were loaded onto railroad cars4. The railheads became cow towns -- cities that concentrated on the cattle industry
65 C. End of the Cattle Kingdom 1. Surplus of cattle2. Fencing limited availability of open land3. Severe weather
66 INDIANS IN THE WEST A. The Plains Indians 1. A wide variety of tribes inhabited the Great Plains2. Many tribes followed the migration of the buffalo, living off the land as they moved3. Societies were highly structured with specific jobs assigned to men and women
67 4. The US government acquired. land from the Indians through 4. The US government acquired land from the Indians through numerous treaties—the Indians were to receive money and supplies; the Bureau of Indian Affairs managed Indian issues5. Treaties were periodically broken, new ones made, and then broken again