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Therapeutic UltrasoundClinical Application © 2005 – FA Davis
FDA Labeling RequirementsOutput frequency Effective Radiating Area (ERA) Beam Nonuniformity Ratio (BNR) Beam profile Date of last service/calibration should also be posted on the unit © 2005 – FA Davis
Treatment Area US heats a limited areaAbout the size of a catsup packet Treatment area should be 2 to 3 times the size of the ERA For larger areas, divide the treatment area into smaller zones © 2005 – FA Davis
Direct Coupling Immersion Method Pad/Bladder MethodCoupling Methods Direct Coupling Immersion Method Pad/Bladder Method © 2005 – FA Davis
Coupling Methods Ultrasonic energy cannot pass through the airA coupling medium is required Medium should be water-based Coupling method should confirm to the body area The body area should be clean and relatively hair-free © 2005 – FA Davis
Direct Coupling Gel or Creams Only use approved coupling agentsApply liberally to area Remove air bubbles by passing sound head over area (before power is increased) © 2005 – FA Davis
Direct Coupling Move the sound head s-l-o-w-l-y4 cm/sec Moving the head faster decreases heating If the patient describes discomfort, decrease the output intensity © 2005 – FA Davis
Coupling Ability of Various MediaSubstance Transmission Saran Wrap 98 Lidex ge, fluocinonide (.05%) 97 Thera-Gesic 97 Mineral oil 97 US Transmission gel 96 US Transmission lotion 90 Chempad-L 68 Hydrocortisone powder (1%) 29 Hydrocortisone powder (10%) 7 Eucerin cream 0 Myoflex 0 White petrolatum gel 0 © 2005 – FA Davis
Immersion Technique Used to treat irregularly shaped areasThe limb is immersed in a tub of degassed water If tap water is used, increase the output intensity by 0.5 w/cm2 Transducer is held appx. 1” from the body part Avoid the formation of air bubbles © 2005 – FA Davis
Pad (Bladder) Method A mass of conductive gelCommercial pads Self-made bladders Conforms to the treatment area Commercial pads help limit the size of the treatment area © 2005 – FA Davis
Output Frequency Duration Duty Cycle Output IntensityOutput Parameters Output Frequency Duration Duty Cycle Output Intensity © 2005 – FA Davis
Output Frequency Determines the treatment depth 1 MHz OutputDeep (5 to 7 cm) tissues Rotator cuff, vastus intermedius, gastroc 3 MHz Output Superficial (up to 3cm deep) tissues Patellar tendon, MCL, brachialis Remember that adipose tissue is transparent to ultrasound © 2005 – FA Davis
Treatment Duration Depends on: Vigorous heatingSize of the treatment area Output intensity Therapeutic goals Vigorous heating 1 MHz output 10 to 12 minuts 3 MHz output 3 to 4 minutes Also see “Output Intensity” © 2005 – FA Davis
Duty Cycle Determine the proportion of thermal and nonthermal effectsHigh duty cycle: Predominantly thermal effects Low duty cycle: Predominantly nonthermal effects Thermal effect used in subacute and chronic conditions Nonthermal effects may be beneficial in acute stages © 2005 – FA Davis
Output Intensity – 1 MHz At a 100% duty cycle 1.75 W/cm2 outputApproximately 4 min treatment is required to increase tissue temp 4°C © 2005 – FA Davis
Output Intensity – 3 MHz At a 100% duty cycle 1.5 W/cm2 outputApproximately 10 min treatment is required to increase tissue temp 4°C © 2005 – FA Davis
Ultrasound and Electrical Stimulation“Combo Treatment” © 2005 – FA Davis
US/Electrical StimulationTheoretically combines the benefit of the two treatments Used to treat: Trigger points Muscle spasm Output parameters: Thermal ultrasound Motor level electrical stimulation © 2005 – FA Davis
Set-up and Application© 2005 – FA Davis
Contraindications Acute injuries (100% duty cycle) Ischemic areasAreas of impaired circulation including arterial disease Over areas of deep vein thrombosis Anesthetic areas Over cancerous tumors Over sites of active infection or sepsis Over the spinal cord or large nerve plexus in high doses Exposed metal that penetrates the skin (e.g., external fixation devices) Areas around the eyes, heart, skull, or genitals Over the thorax in the presence of an implanted pacemaker Pregnancy when used over the pelvic or lumbar areas Over a fracture site before healing is complete Stress fracture sites or sites of osteoporosis Over the pelvic or lumbar area in menstruating female patients © 2005 – FA Davis
Precautions Symptoms may increase after the initial treatments.Use caution when applying ultrasound around the spinal cord, especially after laminectomy. The use of ultrasound over metal implants is not contraindicated Keep the sound head moving Use caution when applying ultrasound over epiphyseal plates of growing bone © 2005 – FA Davis
Instrumentation Duty cycle: Adjusts between continuous and pulsed ultrasound application Frequency: Selects the depth of penetration Gel warmer: Used to preheat the transmission gel, primarily for patient comfort Intensity: Adjusts the output intensity. The WATT METER displays the output in either total watts or watts per square centimeter. Maximum head temperature: Prevents overheating in case the head is not properly coupled. Pause: Interrupts the treatment but retains the remaining amount of treatment time Power: Turns the unit ON or OFF Start-Stop: Initiates or terminates the production of ultrasound from the transducer. Timer: Sets the duration of the treatment. Watt meter: Displays the output of ultrasound in total watts or watts per square centimeter. © 2005 – FA Davis
Patient Preparation Establish that no contraindications are presentDetermine the method and mode of ultrasound application to be used Clean the area to be treated Determine the type of coupling method to be used Identify a treatment area that is 2 to 3 times the ERA For direct coupling: spread the gel over the area to be treated Explain the sensations to be expected during the treatment: Mild to moderate warmth (but not pain or burning) for thermal treatments No subcutaneous sensations during pulsed ultrasound For thermal treatments pre-heating with a moist heat pack will decrease the treatment time required to reach vigorous heating levels Advise the patient to report any adverse, unusual, or painful sensations during the treatment. © 2005 – FA Davis
Initiation of the TreatmentReduce the INTENSITY to zero before turning on the POWER. Select the appropriate mode for the output (CONTINUOUS or PULSED) Set the WATT METER to displays the appropriate output for the type of treatment Set the TIMER to the appropriate treatment duration Begin slowly moving the sound head over the medium Press the START button to begin the treatment session Units having low BNR may be moved at a slower rate than those with a higher BNR Slowly increase the INTENSITY Keep the sound head moving Move the head at a moderate pace (4 cm per second or slower) Use firm, yet not strong, overlapping strokes If pain is experienced: Move the sound head at a faster rate Use a lower duty cycle Use a lower the intensity If the gel begins to wear away or if the sound head begins sticking on the skin, depress the PAUSE button and apply more gel © 2005 – FA Davis
Phonophoresis ApplicationPreheating the area to increase the absorption of the medication Use only approved ultrasound transmission media. The direct coupling method is recommended Efficacy of phonophoresis using the bladder method has not been established Ensure that the skin is well moistened; avoid areas of dry skin Position the extremity to encourage circulation. Use a continuous output to maximize the effect of phonophoresis Unless the thermal effects of ultrasound are contraindicated Follow the procedures described in “Initiation of the Treatment” After treatment, cover the remaining medication with an occlusive dressing. © 2005 – FA Davis
Termination of the TreatmentIf the treatment is being terminated prematurely: Reduce the intensity before removing the transducer Clean the remaining gel from the patient’s skin To ensure continuity of treatment sessions: Record the treatment parameters Output frequency Intensity Duration Duty cycle Running count of ultrasound treatments given for this condition Immediately initiate any post-treatment stretching © 2005 – FA Davis
Maintenance Daily MaintenanceClean ultrasound head and transducer face as recommended by the manufacturer Monthly Maintenance Check all electrical cords for frays or kinks Check the sound head cable for frays or kinks Clean the transmitter face as recommended by the manufacturer. Federal regulations require that therapeutic ultrasound units be recalibrated annually by an authorized service technician © 2005 – FA Davis
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