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On a side note. . . Are they related?.

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US Civil Rights Movement. Abolitionists Frederick Douglas was the editor of an abolitionist newspaper.

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1 On a side note. . . Are they related?

2 US Civil Rights Movement
Beginnings through the 60s

3 Abolitionists Frederick Douglas was the editor of an abolitionist newspaper.

4 Harriet Tubman Helped slaves escape via the Underground Railroad.

5 John Brown He and his sons brutally murdered 5 slave masters in Kansas. (1858) Tried to incite a slave revolt

6 Reconstruction After the Civil War , the federal government made strides toward equality. Blacks voted, held many political offices. The Freedmen’s Bureau was a govt program to help Blacks find land, it established schools and colleges.

7 Reconstruction The Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed all citizens with equal protection under the law. The Fifteenth Amendment said the right to vote shall not be denied on the basis of race.

8 What is the definition of Race

9 What is the definition of Race
people who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock; "some biologists doubt that there are important genetic differences between races of human beings“ subspecies: (biology) a taxonomic group that is a division of a species; usually arises as a consequence of geographical isolation within a species



12 History of Humans The genus Homo were differentiated by about 1%-2% from their nearest cousins, the chimpanzee about 4 million years ago. The genus homo had several species: Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, and the lone survivor, Homo sapiens. African people and Asian people became very slightly differentiated some 200,000 years ago The various Ethnic groups in Europe became differentiated from those in Asia only about 100,000 years ago. Africans, Asians, and Europeans have only very minor local adaptations and very little genetic diversity


14 The Family Tree

15 Huxley's map of racial categories (1870).
 1: Bushmen      2: Negroes      3: Negritoes       4: Melanochroi      5: Australoids      6: Xanthochroi       7: Polynesians      8: Mongoloids A      8: Mongoloids B       8: Mongoloids C      9: Esquimaux

16 White, Black, White Hispanic, Asian
FBI classifications

17 Charles Darwin in “On origin of species
Man has been studied more carefully than any other animal, and yet there is the greatest possible diversity amongst capable judges whether he should be classed as a single species or race, or as two (Virey), as three (Jacquinot), as four (Kant), five (Blumenbach), six (Buffon), seven (Hunter), eight (Agassiz), eleven (Pickering), fifteen (Bory St. Vincent), sixteen (Desmoulins), twenty-two (Morton), sixty (Crawfurd), or as sixty-three, according to Burke. This diversity of judgment shows that they graduate into each other, and that it is hardly possible to discover clear distinctive characters between them

18 Genetic variation distance map-2002

19 Race is a cultural construct
Conceptions of race, as well as specific ways of grouping races, vary by culture and over time, and are often controversial Large parts of the academic community take the position that, while racial categories may be marked by sets of common phenotypic or genotypic traits, the popular idea of "race" is a social construct without base in scientific fact

20 Race is not a real thing!! Race and ethnicity are social, not biological constructs, referring to social groups, often sharing cultural heritage and ancestry. Race and ethnicity are not valid biological or genetic categories

21 However. . . The Supreme Court decided in Plessy vs. Ferguson that separate institutions are okay if they are equal. Jim Crow laws required that Blacks have separate facilities.




25 Dallas Bus Station

26 Jim Crow Laws

27 Texas sign


29 Jim Crow Laws

30 Jim Crow Laws

31 Jim Crow Laws

32 Major Victory Challenging the law: · African Americans continued their struggle for equality, which became known as the civil rights movement. · In 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that “separate but equal” facilities for blacks and whites were constitutional. A Sign at the Greyhound Bus Station, Rome, Georgia September (Esther Bubley, photographer)

33 "The Rex theater for Negro People." Leland, Mississippi, November Marion Post Wolcott, photographer.

34 "A cafe near the tobacco market." Durham, North Carolina. May 1940.

35 " People waiting for a bus at the Greyhound bus terminal
" People waiting for a bus at the Greyhound bus terminal." Memphis, Tennessee. September Esther Bubley, photographer.

36 NAACP Founded in 1909 by W.E.B. Dubois Fought for equality

37 NAACP fought in the courts
Thurgood Marshall was hired by the NAACP to argue in the Supreme Court against school segregation. He won. He was later the 1st Black Supreme Court Justice.

38 Many were arrested.

39 James Meredith, University of Mississippi, escorted to class by U. S
James Meredith, University of Mississippi, escorted to class by U.S. marshals and troops. Oct. 2, 1962.

40 Ole Miss fought against integration

41 200 were arrested during riots at Ole Miss

42 Objective: To examine the importance of the Supreme Court case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS.

43 · With help from the NAACP, the case of Brown v
· With help from the NAACP, the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka reached the Supreme Court, challenging the constitutionality of Plessy v. Ferguson.

44 · In the case, Oliver Brown challenged that his daughter, Linda, should be allowed to attend an all-white school near her home instead of the distant all-black school she had been assigned to. Oliver Brown was a welder for the Santa Fe Railroad and a part-time assistant pastor at St. John African Methodist Episcopal Church. Linda Brown was in the third grade when her father began his class action lawsuit.

45 · Brown’s lawyer, Thurgood Marshall, argued that “separate” could never be “equal” and that segregated schools violated the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee to provide “equal protection” to all citizens.

46 Standing outside a Topeka classroom in 1953 are the students represented in Oliver Brown et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka, From left: Vicki Henderson, Donald Henderson, Linda Brown (Oliver's daughter), James Emanuel, Nancy Todd, and Katherine Carper.

47 * In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Brown family, and schools nationwide were ordered to be desegregated. George E.C. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James M. Nabrit, following Supreme Court decision ending segregation.

48 Linda Brown and her new class mates after Court decision.

49 Thurgood Marshall

50 Brown vs. Board of Education 1954

51 School Integration Come Make Me!
The Supreme Court issued the order that schools are to be integrated with “All deliberate speed”. The attitude of many schools after the 1954 Brown decision was like: Come Make Me!

52 Federalism When Federal troops are sent to make states follow federal laws, this struggle for power is called federalism. The Civil Rights Movement was mostly getting the federal government to make state governments to follow federal law.

53 Bottom Row, Left to Right: Thelma Mothershed, Minnijean Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Gloria Ray; Top Row, Left to Right: Jefferson Thomas, Melba Pattillo, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls, Daisy Bates(NAACP President), Ernest Green

54 Integrated schools: · In Little Rock, Arkansas, Gov. Orval Faubus opposed integration.

55 Little Rock, Arkansas 1957

56 · In 1957, he called out the National Guard in order to prevent African Americans from attending an all-white high school. · Gov. Faubus was violating federal law.

57 Members of the 101st US-Airborne Division escorting the Little Rock Nine to school

58 · Therefore, Pres. Eisenhower sent troops to Little Rock where, under their protection, the African American students were able to enter Central High School. African American students arriving at Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas, in U.S. Army car, 1957.

59 The Federal Government sent in the troops

60 States ignored the ’54 Brown decision, so Feds were sent in.

61 The Fight Many African Americans and whites risked their lives and lost their lives to remedy this situation. Rosa Parks was not the first, but she was the beginning of something special.

62 Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955
Rosa Parks was arrested for violating the segregation laws of Montgomery, Alabama.


64 In Response. . . For over a year, Blacks boycotted the buses.
They carpooled and walked through all weather conditions

65 Objective: To examine the causes and effects of the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Left: Rosa Parks; Below: Rev. Ralph Abernathy Top: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; Right: E.D. Nixon

66 The Voices of Montgomery
Rosa Parks is arrested: · As in many southern states, Alabama’s Jim Crow laws required that blacks give up their seats on buses to whites. · In December of 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama.

67 Dr. King: Listen to Dr. King and Ralph Abernathy discuss the importance of the boycott (1:53) · The NAACP, with the help of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., organized a bus boycott in Montgomery. · Without black riders, white owned bus companies stood to lose a lot of money. The Rev. Ralph Abernathy and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., from left, at a press conference. (May 26, 1963)



70 An empty bus passes by during the Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1956.

71 While the NAACP fought in the courts, MLK’s organization led the boycott.

72 Many were arrested for an “illegal boycott” including their leader. . .

73 A hard-won battle: · In 1956, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on buses was unconstitutional. · Therefore, the Montgomery bus company agreed to integrate their buses and hire black bus drivers. Dr. King and his wife, Coretta, at the conclusion of the boycott.

74 Dr. King and Reverend Ralph Abernathy riding a bus on the first day for desegregated buses in Montgomery, AL. (December 21, 1956)

75 Success!

76 What to do next? You can’t boycott something that doesn’t want your business anyway! A new, nonviolent tactic was needed.

77 Gandhi inspired King to be direct and nonviolent towards Whites.

78 Civil disobedience the active refusal to obey certain laws, using no form of violence.

79 Be the change you wish to see in the world

80 When I despair, I remember that all through history the way of truth and love has always won. There have been tyrants and murderers and for a time they seem invincible, but in the end, they always fall — think of it, always." "What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans, and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty and democracy?" "An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind." "There are many causes that I am prepared to die for but no causes that I am prepared to kill for."

81 Violence never solves problems
Violence never solves problems. It only creates new and more complicated ones. If we succumb to the temptation of using violence in our struggle for justice, unborn generations will be the recipients of a long and desolate night of bitterness, and our chief legacy to the future will be an endless reign of meaningless chaos. --Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., "Facing the Challenge of a New Age"

82 Sit ins This was in Greensboro, North Carolina

83 They were led not by MLK but by college students!

84 Sit-in Tactics Dress in you Sunday best.
Be respectful to employees and police. Do not resist arrest! Do not fight back! Remember, journalists are everywhere!


86 Students were ready to take your place if you had a class to attend.



89 Not only were there sit-ins. .
Swim ins (beaches, pools) Kneel ins (churches) Drive ins (at motels) Study-ins (universities)

90 · King was arrested, his house was bombed, yet the boycott continued.
· King insisted that his followers follow civil disobedience, or nonviolent protests against unjust laws. Martin Luther King, Jr., arrested, Montgomery, Alabama, (Photograph by Charles Moore)

91 King’s sacrifice King was arrested thirty times in his 38 year life.
His house was bombed or nearly bombed several times Death threats constantly

92 "Martin Luther King Jr. was photographed by Alabama cops following his February 1956 arrest during the Montgomery bus boycott. The historic mug shot, taken when King was 27, was discovered in July 2004 by a deputy cleaning out a Montgomery County Sheriff's Department storage room. It is unclear when the notations 'DEAD' and '4-4-68' were written on the picture.”

93 Police started harassing the car pool, threatening to arrest drivers, revoke their licenses, and cancel their insurance policies.  On January 26, King was arrested for speeding and taken to jail (for driving 30 in a 25 mph zone).  A few days later his house was bombed.  Soon King was receiving dozens of hate letters and threatening phone calls every day.  In February an all-white grand jury indicted 89 people, including twenty-four ministers and all drivers in the car pool, for violating an obscure state anti-labor law that prohibited boycotts.  King was the first to be tried.  The judge found him guilty and sentenced him a year of hard labor or a fine of $500 plus court costs. 

94 Selma to Montgomery Part 2

95 Part 2

96 Why march and risk personal injury?


98 Headlines! People around world will convert to your cause if they see you on TV or on the front page of the newspaper.

99 Birmingham, Alabama 1963


101 Police use dogs to quell civil unrest in Birmingham, Ala
Police use dogs to quell civil unrest in Birmingham, Ala. in May of Birmingham's police commissioner "Bull" Connor also allowed fire hoses to be turned on young civil rights demonstrators.

102 Birmingham



105 Thousands marched to the Courthouse in Montgomery to protest rough treatment given voting rights demonstrators. The Alabama Capitol is in the background. March 18,1965

106 High Schoolers jailed for marching
Oh Wallace,    you never can jail us all, Oh Wallace,    segregation's bound to fall

107 Bloody Sunday In Selma, pro-vote marchers face Alabama cops.

108 Selma to Montgomery, Alabama

109 Tending the wounded

110 Marchers cross bridge

111 Police set up a rope barricade.

112 Marchers stayed there for days.

113 We're gonna stand here 'till it falls, ‘Till it falls, ‘Till it falls, We're gonna stand here 'till it falls In Selma, Alabama.

114 Birmingham White America saw 500 kids get arrested and attacked with dogs. There was much support now for civil rights legislation.

115 Voter Registration CORE volunteers came to Mississippi to register Blacks to vote.

116 These volunteers risked arrest, violence and death
every day.

117 The Fight This man spent 5 days in jail for “carrying a placard.”
Sign says “Voter registration worker”

118 Crime Scene This woman was killed by the KKK while on her way to join voter activists in Mississippi

119 "Your work is just beginning
"Your work is just beginning. If you go back home and sit down and take what these white men in Mississippi are doing to us. ...if you take it and don't do something about it. ...then *%# damn your souls."

120 Voter Registration If Blacks registered to vote, the local banks could call the loan on their farm.

121 Freedom Riders Now it is time to test the small-town bus stops and highways!

122 Freedom Riders CORE volunteers, White and Black, got on buses and sat inter-racially on the bus. They went into bus station lunch counters

123 Freedom Riders attacked!

124 Mobs also attacked them at the bus stations.

125 The highways were obviously not safe.

126 James Meredith, right, pulled himself to cover against a parked car after he was shot by a sniper. Meredith had been leading a march to encourage African Americans to vote. He recovered from the wound, and later completed the march. June 7, 1966

127 March on Washington 1963 President Kennedy was pushing for a civil rights bill. To show support, 500,000 African Americans went to Washington D.C.

128 The Supreme Court ruled that protesters had 1st Amendment right to march.

129 March on Washington 1963

130 The event was highlighted by King's "I Have a Dream" speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial. August 28, 1963.

131 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Banned segregation in public places such as restaurants, buses

132 Lyndon B. Johnson ’63-’68 Pushed Civil Rights Act through Congress
Passed more pro-civil rights laws than any other president

133 Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ)
Civil Rights Act of ’64 Civil Rights Act of ’68 Voting Rights Act of ’65 24th Amendment banning poll taxes

134 Left to right: Hosea Williams, Jesse Jackson, Martin Luther King Jr
Left to right: Hosea Williams, Jesse Jackson, Martin Luther King Jr., Rev. Ralph David Abernathy on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel Memphis hotel, a day before King's assassination. April 3,1968

135 Aides of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King point out to police the path of the assassin's bullet. Joseph Louw, photographer for the Public Broadcast Laboratory, rushed from his nearby motel room in Memphis to record the scene moments after the shot. Life magazine, which obtained exclusive rights to the photograph, made it public. April 4, 1968.

136 Malcolm X and MLK

137 Affirmative Action – Policies that take into account historically disadvantaged ethnic groups who were historically denied access to employment, education and other life aspects and giving them an advantage in future consideration to promote equal opportunity and diversity

138 Bakke v. California Quotas Reverse Discrimination




142 Civil Rights legal achievements
Harry Truman ordered the armed forces AND the government to be desegregated.

143 Dwight D. Eisenhower Sent 101st airborne to Little Rock, Arkansas to maintain order.

144 The Killing of Georgie-by Rod Stewart
Deciding to take a short cut home arm in arm they meant no wrong A gentle breeze blew down Fifth Avenue Out of a darkened side street came a New Jersey gang with just one aim to roll some innocent passer-by There ensued a fearful fight screams rang out in the night Georgie's head hit a sidewalk cornerstone A leather kid, a switchblade knife He did not intend to take his life He just pushed his luck a little too far that night The sight of blood dispersed the gang A crowd gathered, the police came An ambulance screamed to a halt on Fifty-third and Third Georgie's life ended there but I ask who really cares George once said to me and I quote He said "Never wait or hesitate Get in kid, before it's too late You may never get another chance 'Cos youth a mask but it don't last live it long and live it fast" Georgie was a friend of mine Oh Georgie stay, don't go away Georgie please stay you take our breath away Oh Georgie stay, don't go away Georgie please stay you take our breath away Oh Georgie stay, don't go away Georgie, Georgie please stay you take our breath away Oh Georgie stay In these days of changing ways so called liberated days a story comes to mind of a friend of mine Georgie boy was gay I guess nothin' more or nothin' less the kindest guy I ever knew His mother's tears fell in vain the afternoon George tried to explain that he needed love like all the rest Pa said there must be a mistakehow can my son not be straight after all I've said and done for him Leavin' home on a Greyhound bus cast out by the ones he love A victim of these gay days it seems Georgie went to New York town where he quickly settled down and soon became the toast of the great white way Accepted by Manhattan's elite in all the places that were chic No party was complete without George Along the boulevards he'd cruise and all the old queens blew a fuse Everybody loved Georgie boy The last time I saw George alive was in the summer of seventy-five he said he was in love I said I'm pleased George attended the opening night of another Broadway hype but split before the final curtain fell

145 John F. Kennedy Called Coretta Scott King to pledge support while MLK was in jail. Eventually sent federal protection of freedom riders Proposed need for civil rights legislation

146 Some Major African American OrganizationsOrganization
Date of Founding Background National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 1909 Founded by black and white progressives; W. E. B. Du Bois a well-known leader; used the courts to attack segregation policies. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) 1942 Founded by the Fellowship of Reconciliation, an international pacifist group; practiced nonviolent direct action such as sit-ins; 1960s “freedom rides” helped desegregate interstate public transportation. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) 1957 Founded by Martin Luther King Jr. to unite African American churches in the use of nonviolent passive resistance to achieve civil rights goals. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) 1960 Founded by young people dedicated to nonviolent methods such as sit-ins; became more militant in the mid-1960s embracing Stokely Carmichael’s idea of “black power.”

147 Get ready for your quiz! 6 questions

148 Quiz 1. Name 2 abolitionists from the 1800s.
2. Whose arrest sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott? 3. Who founded the NAACP in 1909?

149 4. Who inspired MLK’s nonviolent strategies?
5. Which laws required segregation? 6. Which Supreme Court case integrated schools?

150 This powerpoint was kindly donated to
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