Presentation on theme: "Indicator 1.6 USHC-1.6 Analyze the development of the two-party system during the presidency of George Washington, including controversies over domestic."— Presentation transcript:
1 Indicator 1.6USHC-1.6 Analyze the development of the two-party system during the presidency of GeorgeWashington, including controversies over domestic and foreign policies and the regionalinterests of the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists
2 The writers of the Constitution never meant for there to be “political parties” They believed political parties caused separation & corruptionPresident Washington warned of the dangers of political parties in his farewell addressOur Founding Fathers wanted government leaders to take responsibility for their decisions, instead of “going along with the crowd”It wasn’t long after the Constitution was ratified that political parties formed…
3 The first political parties were influenced more by personalities than by the issues The key people were:Alexander Hamilton = Secretary of TreasuryThomas Jefferson = Secretary of State
4 Alexander HamiltonFirst Secretary of Treasury“Federalists” = Strong national governmentWanted national government to pay off Revolutionary War debtThere should be a national bank – was “necessary & proper” to establish a national currency and regulate tradeThere should be a protective tariff – a high tax on imports to prompt consumers to buy locally—would protect our industriesThere should be a excise tax on whiskey – Hamilton wanted to control the drinking habits of Americans and raise revenue for the national governmentLoose interpretation of the ConstitutionSupported by wealthy merchants, industrialists, and a few southern plantation owners
5 Thomas JeffersonFirst Secretary of State“Democratic-Republicans” = Limit power of national gov’tOpposed Nat’l gov’t from paying off Revolutionary war debtArgued that gov’t didn’t support establishing a national bankDemocracy depends on independence of the farmer—not industriesSupported farmers who turned their grain into whiskey—it should be transported easily & cheaply from west to east marketsStrong state governments—closest to will of the peopleSupported by the “common man” = Rural peopleStrict interpretation of the ConstitutionOpposed industrialization
6 Whiskey RebellionHamilton believed the federal gov’t had the power to directly tax Americans to get the USA out of debt1791, Congress imposed a tax on the manufacturing of whiskey (excise tax)The outraged farmers used whiskey as a form of money —especially out WestIt’s not until 1794 that violence eruptedIn Pennsylvania, farmers terrorized tax collectors & destroyed the stills of those who paid the tax
7 Whiskey RebellionHamilton urged President Washington to stop the rebellionThe rebellion ended quickly when 15,000 troops led by President Washington marched into their stateThe rebellion was supported by Thomas Jefferson (farmers!)The two-party system will develop as a result of the serious difference in the political positions on these economic issues
8 First Presidential election & Emergence of political parties As George Washington’s second and final term came to a close, political parties were shown in a very unfavorable lightEach political party chose their candidates for the Presidential election of The “electors” promised to only vote for their party’s choice!
9 For the Federalist Party: John Adams (Washington’s VP) was running for PresidentThomas Pinckney, SC, as his Vice-President
10 For the Democratic-Republican Party: Thomas Jefferson was running for PresidentAaron Burr (Senator from NY) as Vice President
12 Alexander Hamilton disliked Adams and did not want him to win the election He did not want to run against him because he too was a Federalist!So, he decided to covertly fix the election so Adams would not winHamilton persuaded a few Federalist electors to not vote for AdamsHe didn’t want to risk the chance that Pinckney and Adams would receive the same number of electoral votes!He wanted Pinckney to receive more electoral votes and then Pinckney would become President with Adams as his Vice-President
13 Hamilton’s plan leaked out! Many Federalist electors would not vote for Pinckney!After the electoral votes were counted, Adams = 71; Pinckney = 59; Jefferson (with all the support of the Democratic-Republicans) received 68This made John Adams, President with Thomas Jefferson, Vice-President!Thus is the beginning of our political parties!
14 What eventually became of Hamilton & Burr? 1804
18 Democratic DonkeyEver wondered what the story was behind these two famous party animals?The now-famous Democratic donkey was first associated with Democrat Andrew Jackson's 1828 presidential campaignHis opponents called him a jackass (a donkey), and Jackson decided to use the image of the strong-willed animal on his campaign postersLater, cartoonist Thomas Nast used the Democratic donkey in newspaper cartoons and made the symbol famous
20 Republican ElephantNast invented another famous symbol—the Republican elephantAfter the Republicans lost the White House to the Democrats in 1877, Nast drew a cartoon of an elephant walking into a trap set by a donkeyHe chose the elephant to represent the Republicans because elephants are intelligent but easily controlledDemocrats today say the donkey is smart and brave, while Republicans say the elephant is strong and dignified
22 Which political party do you belong to? Time for the survey…
23 Do you trust or distrust the government’s ability to solve problems?
24 Which do you trust more?*Choose one from each group.•The Pentagon or The US Post Office?•The Executive Branch or Legislative Branch?•The FBI or The IRS?•The CIA or The Peace Corps?•The Joint Chiefs or The United Nations?
25 3. What about private institutions and people? Which do you trust more? *Circle one from each group.Lawyers or Doctors?Union Leaders or Business Executives?Professional Athletes or Team Owners?
26 4. The national government should do more to solve our nation’s problems even if it means the following people have to pay more in taxes:(you may choose as many as you want)YouBig CorporationsThe wealthyThe middle classSmall businessesNone
27 5. What should the government cut? (you may choose as many as you want)•Farming subsidies?•Foreign aid?•Subsidies to the arts?•Public education spending?•Money for public broadcasting?•Taxes?•Entitlement programs such as, Social Security,Medicaid, etc?•Defense spending?•Welfare spending?•No cuts at all.
28 Which President accomplished the most for America? *Choose one.Bill Clinton?Ronald Reagan?George Herbert Walker Bush?Jimmy Carter?Richard Nixon?John F. Kennedy?
29 7. Do you see the ideal America as one where we are an “ethnic melting pot” in which religious, cultural, and ethnic differences are blurred, or as a nation in which ethnically diverse groups ought to coexist while retaining their cultural identity?Melting pot?Multicultural society?
30 8. Which would curb violence the most? Stricter controls on the sales of guns?Mandatory sentences for those whocommit crimes with guns?Both?
31 9. In the long run, do you think we can reduce crime more by building more prisons or providing more financial assistance to the rebuilding of our inner cities?Build prisons?Rebuild inner cities?Both?
32 Please indicate whether you agree or disagree with each of the followingstatements:10. Even if it means cutting programs financed by the national government, the federal deficit must be reduced.Agree Disagree
33 11. There are too many government agencies.Agree Disagree12. Gays and lesbians should be able tomarry or at least be treated asmarried under the law.13. The news media is too bias.
34 14. There are too many religious people running our government.Agree Disagree15. The government should allowabortion services to be a part of anystandard health care package.16. Negative political campaign adsshould not be allowed.
35 17. Pornography should be banned. Agree Disagree18. As a society, we should spend more moneytrying to find a cure for AIDS than forcancer and heart disease because AIDSthreatens younger people.19. Talk radio shows should be regulated toensure both sides of a debate arerepresented, because talk radio has anunhealthy impact on the political process.
36 20. The breakdown of the traditional family is the most serious domestic crisis facing ournation.Agree Disagree21. Women and racial minorities should begiven preferences in hiring until we achievetrue gender and racial equality in America.22. Problems in our environment needgovernment action, even if it means raisingtaxes.
37 23. Should a formal prayer be required in public schools?Agree Disagree24. Should marijuana be legalized?25. Gun ownership in the US should beseverely restricted.
38 Let’s calculate your score Let’s calculate your score! You may not turn back and change your answers!!!!!Dr. James will call out the points for each response beginning with number one. You are to first write down the number of points per response and then go back and calculate your total number of points based on your responses.When you are completed calculating the number of points, write the number in the blank below.My score: ____________________ pointsAsk Dr. James for the political party scale, so you can see which political party you might belong to!
40 4. YOU = 0; BIG CORPS = 0;WEALTHY = 0; MIDDLE CLASS = 0;SMALL BUSINESS = 0; NONE = 15. FARM SUBSIDIES = 1;FOREIGN AID = 1;SUBSIDIES FOR ARTS = 1;PUBLIC EDUCATION SPENDING = 1;$$$ FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING = 1;TAXES = 1; ENTITLEMENT PROGS = 1;DEFENSE = 0; NO CUTS = 0;WELFARE = 1
41 6. CLINTON = 0; REAGAN = 1;GHW BUSH = 1; CARTER = 0;NIXON = 1; JFK = 07. MELTING POT = 1MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY = 08. STRICTER CONTROLS = 0;MANDATORY SENTENCES = 1;BOTH = 09. BUILD PRISONS = 1;REBUILD INNER CITIES = 0;
44 Political Party Scale: Where do you fit in? /DEMOCRAT / REPUBLICAN
45 Democratic Description Equality for allHas visions of a better world & wants to make changes to achieve this idealGovernment should regulate the behavior of businessGovernment should redistribute the wealthTax the wealthyLiberalWants changeYoungOldFemaleHomosexualCatholicJewishBlackHispanicBlue-collarLaborerLess-wealthyCollege-student (now!)Live & let live
46 Republican Description ConservativeWants to preserve the status quoMiddle-agedMaleHomophobicBaptistsEvangelicalsWhiteAsianWhite-collarExecutiveMore wealthMore educatedFavors order—strict law& orderFavors freedom over equalityThe right here/right now is greatGovernment should regulate the behaviors of individualsPro-strong militaryTax everyoneWhat’s mine is mineEarn your own $$$$$You have ‘em, then gotta feed ‘em
47 Famous Democrats Bill Clinton Al Gore Hillary Clinton Jessie Jackson People who think like you do:Bill ClintonAl GoreHillary ClintonJessie JacksonBarack ObamaJames Clyburn, SC 6Gloria TinubuMuhammad AliShirley ChisholmNancy PelosiJohn KerryBrad PittJFKJoe Biden
48 Famous Republicans People who think like you do: George W. Bush Dick CheneyJohn McCainCondoleezza RiceTom RiceLindsey Graham, SCJim DeMint, SCNikki Haley, SC-GovDale Earnhardt, Jr.Clint EastwoodColin PowellTim Scott, SC 1Joe Wilson, SC 2Jeff Duncan, SC 3Trey Gowdy, SC 4Mick Mulvaney, SC 5