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AP Psychology Unit 14: Social Psychology David G. Myers© 2010 by Worth Publishers
Figure 14.1 Attitudes follow behavior Cooperative actions, such as those performed by people on sports teams, feed mutual liking. Such attitudes, in turn, promote positive behavior. © 2010 by Worth Publishers
Figure 14.2 Asch’s conformity experiments Which of the three comparison lines is equal to the standard line? What do you suppose most people would say after hearing five others say, “Line 3”? In this photo from one of Asch’s experiments, the student in the center shows the severe discomfort that comes from disagreeing with the responses of other group members (in this case, confederates of the experimenter). © 2010 by Worth Publishers
Figure 14.3 Informational influence Sample task: After seeing Slides 1 and 2, participants judged which person in Slide 2 was the same as the person in Slide 1. From Baron et al., 1996 © 2010 by Worth Publishers
Figure 14.4 Milgram’s follow-up obedience experiment In a repeat of the earlier experiment, 65 percent of the adult male “teachers” fully obeyed the experimenter’s commands to continue. They did so despite the “learner’s” earlier mention of a heart condition and despite hearing cries of protest after 150 volts and agonized protests after 330 volts. Data from Milgram, 1974 © 2010 by Worth Publishers
Figure 14.5 Group polarization If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions. Talking over racial issues increased prejudice in a high-prejudice group of high school students and decreased it in a low-prejudice group. Myers & Bishop, 1970 © 2010 by Worth Publishers
Gallup surveys reported by Carroll, 2007Figure 14.6 Prejudice over time Americans’ approval of interracial marriage has soared over the past half-century. Gallup surveys reported by Carroll, 2007 © 2010 by Worth Publishers
Visual mask Figure 14.7 Race primes perceptions In experiments by Keith Payne (2006), people viewed a White or Black face, immediately followed by a gun or hand tool, which was then quickly obscured by a “visual mask” on the screen. Participants were more likely to misperceive a tool as a gun when it was preceded by a Black rather than White face. © 2010 by Worth Publishers
(a) (b) Figure 14.8 Who do you like best? Which one placed an ad seeking “a special lady to love and cherish forever”? Answer Research suggests that subtly feminized features convey a likable image, which people tend to associate more with committed dads than with promiscuous cads. Thus, 66 percent of the women picked computer-generated face (b) in response to both of these questions. © 2010 by Worth Publishers
Figure 14.9 Vivid cases feed stereotypes The 9/11 Muslim terrorists created, in many minds, an exaggerated stereotype of Muslims as terror-prone. Actually, reported a U.S. National Research Council panel on terrorism, when offering the inexact illustration at right, most terrorists are not Muslim and “the vast majority of Islamic people have no connection with and do not sympathize with terrorism”. Smelser & Mitchell, 2002 © 2010 by Worth Publishers
From Anderson & Anderson, 1984Figure Uncomfortably hot weather and aggressive reactions Between 1980 and 1982 in Houston, murders and rapes were more common on days over 91 degrees Fahrenheit (33 degrees centigrade), as shown in the graph. This finding is consistent with those from laboratory experiments in which people working in a hot room react to provocations with greater hostility. From Anderson & Anderson, 1984 © 2010 by Worth Publishers
Figure Men who sexually coerce women The recipe for coercion against women combines an impersonal approach to sex with a hostile masculinity. Adapted from Malamuth, 1996 © 2010 by Worth Publishers
Figure Biopsychosocial understanding of aggression Because many factors contribute to aggressive behavior, there are many ways to change such behavior, including learning anger management and communication skills, and avoiding violent media and video games. © 2010 by Worth Publishers
Figure I like the candidate who looks a bit like dear old me Jeremy Bailenson and his colleagues (2005) incorporated morphed features of voters’ faces into the faces of 2004 U.S. presidential candidates George Bush and John Kerry. Without conscious awareness of their own incorporated features, the participants became more likely to favor the candidate whose face incorporated some of their own features. © 2010 by Worth Publishers
Figure Average is attractive Which of these faces offered by University of St. Andrews psychologist David Perrett (2002) is most attractive? Most people say it’s the face on the right—of a nonexistent person that is the average composite of these three plus 57 other actual faces. © 2010 by Worth Publishers
Figure The decision-making process for bystander intervention Before helping, one must first notice an emergency, then correctly interpret it, and then feel responsible. From Darley & Latané, 1968b © 2010 by Worth Publishers
Figure Responses to a simulated physical emergency When people thought they alone heard the calls for help from a person they believed to be having an epileptic seizure, they usually helped. But when they thought four others were also hearing the calls, fewer than a third responded. From Darley & Latané, 1968a © 2010 by Worth Publishers
Figure Social-trap game matrix By pursuing our self-interest and not trusting others, we can end up losers. To illustrate this, imagine playing the game below. The peach triangles show the outcomes for Person 1, which depend on the choices made by both players. If you were Person 1, would you choose A or B? (This game is called a non–zero-sum game because the outcomes need not add up to zero; both sides can win or both can lose.) © 2010 by Worth Publishers
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