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Global Involvements and World War I,

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1 Global Involvements and World War I, 1902-1920
AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2011

2 Focus Questions What goals underlay America’s early-twentieth-century involvements in Asia and Latin America? Considering both immediate and long-term factors, why did the United States go to war in 1917? How did Washington mobilize the nation for war, and what role did U.S. troops play in the war? What was the war’s economic, political, and social impact on the American home front? How did the League of Nations begin, and why did the Senate reject U.S. membership in the League?

3 Defining America’s World Role, 1902-1914

4 The “Open Door:” Competing for the China Market
John Hay’s “Open Door” Note China should be open to all countries Troops sent to put down Boxer Rebellion


6 The Panama Canal: Hardball Diplomacy
Need to move ships from Atlantic to Pacific during Spanish-American War French fail Roosevelt assists Panamanian rebels Panama Canal built U.S. Canal Zone established 1198 people, 128 Americans killed when Lusitania sank

7 TR VISITS THE PANAMA CANAL CONSTRUCTION SITE, 1906 President Theodore Roosevelt played a key role in securing the strip of land on which the canal was built. Here he proudly poses in a steam shovel used in the construction project. p. 665



10 Roosevelt and Taft Assert U.S. Power in Latin America and Asia
“The Roosevelt Corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine U.S. right to intervene in Western Hemisphere “speak softly and carry a big stick” Roosevelt earns Nobel Peace Prize Russo-Japanese war Taft and “dollar diplomacy” TR for war Bryan and Lafollette, German and Irish-Americans against war


12 Dollar Diplomacy is the term used to describe the effort of the United States — particularly under President William Howard Taft — to further its foreign policy aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. The term was originally coined by President Taft, who claimed that U.S. operations in Latin America went from "warlike and political" to "peaceful and economic". Taft urged Americans to invest overseas,  which called for bankers to channel their surplus money into foreign areas of strategic concern to the U.S., especially in the Far East and in the regions critical to the security of the Panama Canal. This investment, gave the U.S. economic control over these areas. In 1909, perceiving a threat to the monopolistic Russian and Japanese control of the Manchurian Railway, Taft had Secretary of State Philander C. Knox propose that a group of American and foreign bankers buy the railroads and turn them over to China. Taft also pumped U.S. dollars into Honduras and Haiti, whose economies were stagnant, while in Cuba, the same Honduras, the Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua, American forces were brought in to restore order after unrest. The term is also used historically by Latin Americans to show their disapproval of the role that the U.S. government and U.S. corporations have played in using economic, diplomatic and military power to open up foreign markets.

13 Wilson and Latin America
Promised to not seek additional territory Intervened in Haiti, Dominican Republic Tried to control events in Mexico Intervened in Mexican internal conflict Sent troops under John J. Pershing to go after Pancho Villa

14 MAP 22.1 U.S. HEGEMONY IN THE CARIBBEAN AND LATIN AMERICA, 1900–1941 Through many interventions, territorial acquisitions, and robust economic expansion, the United States became the predominant power in Latin America in the early twentieth century. Acting on Theodore Roosevelt’s assertion of a U.S. right to combat “wrongdoing” in Latin America and the Caribbean, the United States dispatched troops to the region, where they met nationalist opposition. Map 22-1, p. 667

15 WOODROW WILSON, SCHOOLTEACHER This 1914 political cartoon captures the patronizing tone of Wilson’s approach to Latin America, which planted the seeds of long-term resentments. p. 668

16 War in Europe, 1914-1917 War at a stalemate
British losing 1 of 4 ships American and British navy escorts reduce toll Only 120,000 active soldiers/80,000 in National Guard Selective Service brings almost 3 million into army, 2 million volunteer Women in navy and marines 400,000 blacks enlisted or drafted into army and navy More ammunition used in 7 weeks of Meuse-Argonne offensive than in entire Civil War

17 The Coming of War Secret alliances Rise of German Empire
Competition for colonies, military power Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated June 1914 in Sarajevo, Bosnia War Allies-Great Britain, Russia, France Central Powers-Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Empire


19 The Perils of Neutrality
Wilson vows to stay neutral American generally agree “He kept us out of war” Germans sink Lusitania Limits agreed for submarine warfare



22 THE SINKING OF THE CUNARD LINER LUSITANIA, MAY 7, 1915, OFF THE IRISH COAST The destruction of the Lusitania by a German U-boat, portrayed here in an illustration from an English newspaper, took nearly 1,200 lives, including 128 Americans. This event outraged U.S. public opinion and led to build-up in military preparedness. But as President Wilson pursued diplomatic exchanges with Germany, nearly two more years would pass before the United States entered the war. p. 670

23 The United States Enters the War
Unrestricted submarine warfare reinstated Zimmerman telegram Declaration of war April 2, 1917 U.S. joins Allies


25 Mobilizing at Home, Fighting in France, 1917-1918

26 Raising, Training, and Testing an Army
Selective Service Act Commission on Training and Camp Activities Turned civilians into soldiers A RECRUITMENT POSTER TARGETING AFRICAN AMERICANS In this poster, Abraham Lincoln looks down approvingly as black soldiers battle the German foe. In reality, most black troops were restricted to non-combat roles.

27 WAR ENTHUSIASM IN THE HEARTLAND In Denver, automobiles carrying young army recruits parade through the city. p. 672

28 Organizing the Economy for War
War Industries Board Bernard Baruch Fuel Administration Food Administration Herbert Hoover “Meatless Monday” “Wheatless Wednesday”

29 War Industries Board Original caption: War Industries Board
War Industries Board Original caption: War Industries Board. Seated from left to right are : Seated, Admiral F.F. Fletcher; Robt. S. Brookings, chairman price-fixing committee; Bernard N. Baruch, chairman: and Hugh Frayne, labor representative. Standing H.P. Ingles, secretary; Judge E. B. Parker, priorities commissioner; George N. Peek, commissioner of finished products; J. Leonard Replogle, steel administrator; Alexander Legge, vice chairman; Major General George W. Goethals, army; and Albert C. Ritchie, general counsel.

30 WORLD WAR I POSTER URGING FOOD CONSERVATION, BY THE ILLUSTRATOR JAMES MONTGOMERY FLAGG Home-front propaganda played a key role in mobilizing Americans in support of the war effort in 1917–1918. 22CO, p. 662



33 With the American Expeditionary Force in France
European armies in disarray Stuck in trench warfare Russia under Bolsheviks quits John J. Pershing leads AEF 2 million Americans serve in France and Belgium Second Battle of the Marne Meuse-Argonne offensive Aircraft play important role

34 WORLD WAR I SOLDIERS LISTEN TO A SPECIAL “ARMY AND NAVY MODEL” EDISON PHONOGRAPH “Since the beginning of the war,” declared the Edison Company, “there has welled up from the trenches in Europe a great cry for music.” p. 681

35 Gen. Pershing Inspects the Troops at Chaumont Accompanied by Capt
Gen. Pershing Inspects the Troops at Chaumont Accompanied by Capt. George S. Patton

36 THE FOG OF WAR. U.S. TROOPS ON THE WESTERN FRONT, JUNE 26, 1918 The reality of combat differed from the idealized images offered in home front propaganda. As the war’s fi nal stage began, these American soldiers attacked entrenched German positions in Alsace, a disputed region along the French-German border near Switzerland (see Map 22.2). They are fi ring a 37mm. machine gun, a weapon of deadly accuracy with a maximum range of a mile and a half. p. 678

37 THE WAR IN THE AIR This recruitment poster evoked the romance and excitement of air combat in World War I, the first in which airplanes played a role. p. 675


39 Americas first ace: Capt
Americas first ace: Capt. Eddie Rickenbacker shot down 26 enemy aircraft in World War I and earned the Medal of Honor for his actions. His feats, and those of other Allied fliers, ushered in an era of air-to-air combat that changed the role of aircraft in military operations forever, and helped establish the need for control of the air during wartime.

40 Turning the Tide Americans help Allies win war
Meuse-Argonne offensive ends war Armistice signed November 11, 1918

41 MAP 22.2 THE UNITED STATES ON THE WESTERN FRONT, 1918 American troops fi rst saw action in the campaign to throw back Germany’s spring 1918 offensive in the Somme and Aisne-Marne sectors. The next heavy American engagement came that autumn as part of the Allies’ Meuse-Argonne offensive, which ended the war. Map 22-2, p. 677


43 High Casualty Rates British Empire 1,000,000 France 1,700,000
Germany 2,000,000 Austro-Hungarian 1,500,000 Russia 1,700,000 Italy ,000 United States ,000 Half of US dead from flu

44 Promoting the War and Suppressing Dissent

45 Advertising the War Liberty Loans Committee on Public Information
“Fight of Buy Bonds” Committee on Public Information Georg Creel Propaganda Emphasizes German atrocities Warns of spies and saboteurs Becomes “progressive” war


47 Wartime Intolerance and Dissent
Anti-German sentiment grows Ban on German language “liberty cabbage” Socialists oppose war Attacks against radical dissenters Religious (conscientious) objectors Organized labor, women’s groups, blacks split in support

48 "No person, individually or as a teacher, shall, in any private, denominational, parochial or public school teach any subject to any person in any language other than the English language." –Nebraska state law (1919) "If these people are Americans, let them speak our language. If they don't know it, let them learn it. If they don't like it, let them move " –Nebraska state legislator "No person, individually or as a teacher, shall, in any private, denominational, parochial or public school teach any subject to any person in any language other than the English language." –Nebraska state law (1919) "If these people are Americans, let them speak our language. If they don't know it, let them learn it. If they don't like it, let them move " –Nebraska state legislator "No person, individually or as a teacher, shall, in any private, denominational, parochial or public school teach any subject to any person in any language other than the English language." –Nebraska state law (1919) "If these people are Americans, let them speak our language. If they don't know it, let them learn it. If they don't like it, let them move " –Nebraska state legislator

49 “A GERMAN IN AMERICA; AN AMERICAN IN NO MAN’S LAND” This March 1918 cartoon in the New York Herald attacked Karl Muck, the German conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, when the orchestra performed in New York. Muck was arrested soon after and imprisoned for the rest of the war. Propaganda like this helped whip up anti-German hysteria on the home front. p. 679

50 MILWAUKEE SOCIALIST LEADER VICTOR BERGER OPPOSES WAR PROFITEERS AND THE SUPPRESSION OF FREE SPEECH Elected to Congress in 1918, Berger was denied a seat because of his conviction under the wartime Espionage Act. The Supreme Court later reversed the conviction, and Berger served in Congress from 1923 to 1929. p. 682

51 Suppressing Dissent Espionage Act American Protective League organized
Sedition Amendment Socialist magazines banned in mail Schenk v. United States “clear and present danger” doctrine American Protective League organized Councils of Defense Boy Spies of America

52 Debs defended his comrades who had already been sent to jail for speaking against the war, some of them his close friends, and he disputed the common charge that the Socialists were pro-German. He added that America’s greatest enemy was not the Kaiser, but those American businessmen who had taken the country to war, and were making inordinate profits from the venture. Debs also repeated the standard socialist talking point that wars were a nasty by-product of capitalist greed, and that when working people took charge of the earth, peace would reign. The most often quoted line from that speech was Debs’s comment, “you need to know that you are fit for something better than slavery and cannon fodder.” Debs knew that federal agents were in the crowd, and he may have expected to be arrested, though I don’t think he was actively courting martyrdom—more likely, he was saying what he felt he had to say. He was in his 60s and in frail health, and he certainly did not relish the prospect of spending his last days in prison, but he felt it was his duty not to remain silent while his friends were going to jail. He was a reluctant martyr. The question in every case is whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that the United States Congress has a right to prevent. It is a question of proximity and degree. When a nation is at war, many things that might be said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its effort that their utterance will not be endured so long as men fight, and that no Court could regard them as protected by any constitutional right.

53 Economic and Social Trends in Wartime America

54 Boom Times in Industry and Agriculture
Prices and wages rise Industry grows Farmers profit Bust after war

55 Blacks Migrate Northward
Move from South to jobs in Northern cities Racial tensions and violence

56 AN AFRICAN-AMERICAN FAMILY ARRIVES IN CHICAGO, 1912 Seeking a better life, African-Americans moved North in great numbers in the early twentieth century. Among the newcomers was Fraser Robinson Jr., grandfather of Michelle Obama, the future first lady, who came to Chicago from South Carolina. p. 684

57 Women in Wartime Nineteenth Amendment-1919
1 million women work in industry

58 Public-Health Crisis: The 1918 Influenza Pandemic
million die worldwide 550,000 in US, six times battle deaths

59 BATTLING INFLUENZA, 1918 Red Cross workers like these in Philadelphia and other public-health professionals mobilized to combat a deadly epidemic that claimed over half a million American lives. p. 687

60 FIGURE 22.1 U.S. DEATH RATE FROM INFLUENZA AND PNEUMONIA, 1900–1960 This chart shows the devastating toll of the 1918 infl uenza epidemic, as well as the gradual decline of infl uenza mortality thanks to the discovery of antibiotics that combat the secondary infections that are often fatal. Fig. 22-1, p. 686

61 The War and Progressivism
Eighteenth Amendment-1919 Campaign against vice War Labor Board Many ideas copied in FDR’s New Deal

62 Joyous Armistice, Bitter Aftermath, 1918-1920

63 Wilson’s Fourteen Points: The Armistice
Wilson’s plan for post-war world “war to end all wars” “general association of nations” Self-determination for people of Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires

64 “Liberalism is the only thing that
can save civilization form chaos— from a flood of ultra-radicalism that will swamp the world… Liberalism must be more liberal than ever before, it must even be radical, if civilization is to escape the typhoon.” --Woodrow Wilson

65 The Versailles Peace Conference, 1919
French and British determined to punish Germany Reparations demanded Some self-determination Poland, Baltic States New nations-Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia Mandate in Palestine (Israel) Balfour Declaration

66 THE VICTORIOUS ALLIED LEADERS IN PARIS, DECEMBER 1918 Seated, left to right: Vittorio Orlando (Italy), David Lloyd George (Great Britain), Georges Clemenceau (France), and Woodrow Wilson. The peace conference revealed deep divisions among the Allies, as Wilson promoted his visionary new world order, including a League of Nations, and the European powers pursued their own interests and imposed harsh terms on defeated Germany. p. 690

67 The Fight over the League of Nations
Wilson gives up most of 14 points to get League in Treaty of Versailles Opposition in U.S. Henry Cabot Lodge Wilson won’t compromise Gets sick in Pueblo, then has stroke Reservationists and irreconcilables block treaty in Senate


69 REFUSING TO GIVE THE LADY A SEAT” In this newspaper cartoon published during the Senate battle over U.S. membership in the League of Nations, three Republican opponents of the League—William Borah of Idaho, Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, and Hiram Johnson of California—stubbornly refuse to give a seat to an angelic female passenger symbolizing peace. p. 691

70 Racism and Red Scare, 1919-1920 Anti-radical sentiment
Palmer Raids target radicals AG A. Mitchell Palmer 4000 arrested, 550 deported

71 CHICAGO RACE RIOT, 1919 This graphic photo vividly conveys the horrifying reality of the racial violence that struck Chicago in July 1919. p. 692



74 The Election of 1920 Democrats nominate James Cox
Republicans nominate Warren Harding Return to “normalcy” Harding wins easily


76 Table 22-1, p. 692

77 p. 693

78 Global Involvements and World War I, 1902-1920
AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2011

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