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Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict,

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1 Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict, 1840-1848
AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2011

2 Focus Questions How did immigration in the 1840s influence the balance of power between the Whig and Democratic parties? What economic and political forces fed westward expansion during the 1840s? How did westward expansion threaten war with Britain and Mexico? How did the outcome of the Mexican-American War intensify intersectional conflict?

3 Newcomers and Natives FIGURE 13.1 GERMAN, IRISH, AND TOTAL IMMIGRATION, 1830–1860 Irish and German immigrants led the more than tenfold growth of immigration between 1830 and 1860.

4 Expectations and Realities
Religious freedom Economic opportunity Reality conflicted with expectations Concentrated by ethnicity Urban settlement German and Irish immigrants

5 From the 1830s to the 1860s, more than one and one half million Germans immigrated to United States of America. German immigrantsto America were typically struggling farmers, political refugees, religious refugees, ormen avoiding conscription in the German military. These German immigrants settled throughout the United States, in both urban and rural communities; however, the majority settled in the mid- western states. German immigrants acquired a reputation for being hardworking, thrifty, and law-abiding people. Germans made numerous contributions to American culture, including inventions, traditions, sports and food. The flooding of German immigrants to America was the result of long-term social, religious, and economic changes occurring throughout the German states. Many of the farmers who came to America were troubled by the collaspe of the Industrial Revolution in Germany, agricultural reform, overpopulation, crop failure, and lack of land in Germany. During the time period of , most German immigrants came from the southwestern states of Germany, where the many of the people were farmers. Investors in Germany looked towards more profitable fields of work such as railroad building or artisan work, as opposed to loaning money to farmers. Many farmers, fearing a loss of their land, opted to sell their land and move to America, where land was cheaper and more abundant. Along with the immigration of farmers from came shopkeepers, craftsmen and artisans, who were also struggling in Germany.Another reason that Germans came to America was for the freedom that they did not possess in Germany. In coming to America, Germans sought political refuge, religious refuge, and refuge from the German army. German intellectuals came to the United States as Liberal Political Refugees. This group of political refugees came after taking part in the Hambacher Fest, a liberal demonstration that was held in May of 1832, at Hambach in the Bavarian Palatinate. Another political refugee group, known as the Forty-Eighters, came to the United States after the collapse of the Democratic Revolutions of In the United States they sought a democratic government, where they would be able to preach as they wished. Forty-Eighters worked primarily in the fields of journalism, medicine, music, and education, all of in which they made tremendous contributions to America. The immigrants who came to the United States seeking religious freedoms were known as the Old Lutherans. The Old Lutherans desired a homeland where they held the freedom to practice their own religion. A large number of German immigrants to the United States were young men who wanted to avoid conscription in the German Army. These men chose to immigrate to America instead of being forced to serve in the German army for an extended period of time. Political unrest was also a contributing factor to the immigration in the 1830's. Many Lutherans came to the United States in the late 1830's and early 1840's in protest against Prussia's forced unification of the Lutheran and Reformed churches. The Carlsbad Decree of 1819 sent German students and German liberals to America in the early 1830's, but fugitives from the abortive democratic revolutions of 1848 were more numerous. All together; however, political refugees were of the minority of Germans who immigrated to the United States in the 1830's and 1840's. Transportation improvements also played a significant role in the rise of German immigrants. The spread of steamboats in the 1830's and of railroads in the 1850's simplified international travel, as well as made it quicker. Frequent transatlantic sailing and the lowering of fares both made the journey more appealing. Although the German immigrants dispersed themselves across the United States, the mid-west was the most popular region for the Germans to settle in. Germans migrated to the limestone floored valleys, such as the Mississippi Valley and the Ohio Valley. Cities, such as Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Milwaukee became urban centers for German immigrants. German immigrants who lived in these cities were mostly skilled artisans and craftsmen. Also, Wisconsin, Iowa, Michigan, and Ohio had similar climactical and geographical conditions to that of Central Europe, therefore making these states appealing to the German farmers.



8 The Germans Wide spectrum Common language Self-reliant Classes
Occupations Most were farmers Levi Strauss Common language Self-reliant


10 The Irish Through mid 1820s, mostly Protestants
Potato famine ( s) 1 million dead, 2 million emigrated Mostly poor and Catholic Harsh existence Factory work, labor Conflict with blacks


12 IRISH IMMIGRANTS IN AMERICA As potential voters and competitors for jobs, large families of Irish Catholic immigrants like this one stoked fear and hostility among native-born Protestants. p. 373


14 Anti-Catholicism, Nativism, and Labor Protest
Anti-Catholic fever Nativism Rise in labor unions Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) labor unions not illegal monopolies that restrained trade Friction between native born and immigrants

15 A Know Nothing Flag

16 homas Nast's "The American River Ganges" appeared in the May 8, 1875 issue of Harper's Weekly. The cartoon reflects the widespread nativism of the time, which was expressed freely and frequently in mainstream media outlets and in political life. The cartoon depicts Catholic bishops as crocodiles threatening public school students, who are defended by an individual carrying a Bible in his coat. The building in the background on the left resembles St. Peter's Basilica, and "Political Roman Catholic Church" is written across the front. The lower building immediately to the right is labeled "The Political Roman Catholic School." The ruins on the ridge farther to the right represent the "U.S. Public School," which flies the American flag upside down as a sign of distress.

17 Immigrant Politics Political upheaval in Austria and other German states “Forty-Eighters” Concern about jobs Attracted to Democratic Party Feared abolition

18 The West and Beyond GOLD MINERS At first, gold rushers worked individually, each with a shovel and pan. By the 1850s, devices like the one shown here, a “long tom,” were making mining a cooperative venture.

19 The Far West Oregon Country OR, WA, ID, parts of WY, MT, and Canada
Spain and Russia abandon claims Joint occupation with Britain 42° to 54°40´ N


21 Far Western Trade Trade created little friction with Californios
Santa Fe Trail Beaver trade in Rockies Americans move to eastern Texas

22 Santa Fe Trail - Highway to the Southwest
1821 the land beyond Missouri was a vast uncharted region called home to great buffalo herds and unhappy Indians angered over the continual westward expansion of the white man.  Before Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821, the Spanish banned trade between Santa Fe and the United States. After independence, Mexico encouraged trade. Though numerous dangers awaited him, Captain William Becknell was determined to make the trip through waterless plains and war-like Indians to trade with the distant Mexicans in New Mexico. On September 1, 1821, Becknell left Arrow Rock, Missouri with four trusted companions, blazing the path that would become known as the  Santa Fe Trail.  An Army train crossing the plains, Harper's Weekly, April 24, 1868 On his first trip, Becknell loaded manufactured goods from Missouri onto a mule train to trade for furs, gold, silver, and other goods in New Mexico. However, by his third trip Becknell had found a passable wagon route, thus beginning the many wagon trains heading to the southwest.  Credited as the "Father of the Santa Fe Trail,” Becknell continued to make multiple trips along the trail, profiting enormously on his daring travels. Soon, many traders, as well as the military, were traveling the route. Two routes soon developed along the trail, the Mountain Route and the Jornada Route. Both routes followed the same path from Missouri, traveling west to the Arkansas River and following the river into southwest Kansas. For many years, the only trading post between Independence, Missouri and Santa Fe, New Mexico was in Council Grove, Kansas, some 130 miles from Independence and over 650 miles from Santa Fe. At Fort Larned, Kansas the trail split into two branches. The Mountain Route was longer but not quite as dangerous, with fewer warlike Indians and more water along the route. This branch traveled about 230 miles between Fort Larned and Bent's Fort near present-day La Junta, Colorado, continuing to follow the Arkansas River before turning south through the Raton Pass to Santa Fe. Though the shorter Jornada Route, also called the Cimarron Cutoff, provided less water, it saved the travelers ten days by cutting southwest across the Cimarron Desert to Santa Fe. The Cimarron Desert route was shorter and easier for the wagon parties than the mountainous Raton Pass, but travelers risked attacks by Native Americans in addition to shortages of water. Despite the hazards, the shorter route would end up carrying 75% of the Santa Fe Trail pioneers. In 1825, the United States obtained a right of way from the Osage Indians, which officially established the Santa Fe Trail as a national "highway.”  In 1827, Independence, Missouri was founded and within a few years became the major outfitting point on the eastern end of the trail. In 1834, Bent's Fort, a fur trade post on the upper Arkansas established was established near what is present-day La Junta, Colorado. A Bent, St. Vrain and Company party and wagons eastbound from Santa Fe, New Mexico in the late summer traveled by way of Taos and Raton Pass to Bent's Fort; then came down the Arkansas River to the Santa Fe Trail, opening the Bent's Fort branch of the Santa Fe Trail. By this time, the trail was being frequently used with more than 2000 wagons, in caravans of about 50 departing  each spring from Missouri. When the Mexican-American War began, travel and trading along the trail was restricted but, it was heavily used by the military for transportation of supplies from the Missouri River towns to the Southwest. When the war ended in 1848, trading resumed and considerable military freight continued to be hauled over the trail to supply the southwestern forts. In 1849, with the discovery of gold in California, westbound emigrants, in increasing numbers, traveled the Santa Fe Trail to Bent's Fort, then journeyed northward by trail along the base of the Rocky Mountains to Fort Laramie and beyond. By 1850, a monthly stagecoach line was established between Independence, Missouri and Santa Fe, New Mexico . Trade was limited again during the Civil War ( ), but by the late 1860s, activity along the trail had resumed. In 1880 a railroad reached Santa Fe, and use of the Santa Fe Trail declined. Other trails that were connected to the Santa Fe Trail included the Old Spanish Trail, which linked Santa Fe to Los Angeles, and the El Camino Real, which connected Santa Fe to Mexico City. Today, part of the route has been designated as a National Scenic Byway Santa Fe Trail - Highway to the Southwest

23 An Army train crossing the plains, Harper's Weekly,
April 24, 1868 Ruts from the Santa Fe Trail can still be seen in Morton County, Kansas

24 SUNSET: CALIFORNIA SCENERY, BY ALBERT BIERSTADT German-born, Bierstadt became famous and wealthy for his paintings of the western mountains, which sacrificed accuracy for awe and majesty. p. 377

25 Mexican Government in the Far West
Decline of mission system after 1820s Secularization by Mexican government Americans encouraged to settle in eastern Texas Agents-empresarios Stephen F. Austin Conflict over slavery American immigration closed in 1830 Instability in Mexico Santa Anna takes over and restricts states

26 Texas Revolution, 1836 Rebellion in 1835 Texans lose at the Alamo
Santa Anna brings Mexican army to Texas Texans lose at the Alamo “remember the Alamo” becomes battle cry Sam Houston and Texas army defeats Santa Anna Mexicans Battle of San Jacinto Texas independent republic




30 Goliad


32 Santa Anna surrenders

33 ". waving his hat and shouting "San Jacinto. San Jacinto
" waving his hat and shouting "San Jacinto! San Jacinto! The Mexicans are whipped and Santa Anna a prisoner." The scene that followed beggars description. People embraced, laughed and wept and prayed, all in one breath. As the moon rose over the vast flower-decked prairie, the soft southern wind carried peace to tired hearts and grateful slumber. As battles go, San Jacinto was but a skirmish; but with what mighty consequences! The lives and the liberty of a few hundred pioneers at stake and an empire won! Look to it, you Texans of today, with happy homes, mid fields of smiling plenty, that the blood of the Alamo, Goliad, and San Jacinto sealed forever .  Texas, one and indivisible!--Ms. Kate Scurry Terrell describing the scene among refugee families on the Sabine River.

34 MAP 13.2 MAJOR BATTLES IN THE TEXAS REVOLUTION, 1835–1836 Sam Houston’s victory at San Jacinto was the decisive action of the war and avenged the massacres at the Alamo and Goliad. Map 13-2, p. 379


36 American Settlements in California, New Mexico, and Oregon
Few hundred Americans in NM by 1840 400 in CA Americans stream into Sacramento Valley in 1840s Americans move into Willamette Valley in OR beginning in 1830s 500 by 1840

37 Willamette Valley Jason Lee, Methodist missionary settled in Salem


39 The Overland Trails Part of westward migration
300,000 migrants between 1840 and 1860 2,000 miles Started in Missouri or Iowa North into Oregon or south into California Oregon Trail California Trail Independence St. Joseph Council Bluffs


41 CROSSING THE RIVER PLATTE In the absence of bridges, pioneers had to bet on shallow river bottoms to cross rivers. p. 380

42 Life on the trail Difficult and different Society of the trail
Walked most of the time Death rate only slightly higher than American population as a whole Fewer than 400 (less than 1/10 of 1%) died in conflicts with Indians Indians generally helpful



45 The Politics of Expansion, 1840-1846

46 The Whig Ascendancy William Henry Harrison dies in April 1840
John Tyler becomes president Vetoed Whig proposals, esp. tariff Lost control of House in 1842 election

47 Tyler and the Annexation of Texas
Boundary bet. Canada and US settled Webster-Ashburton Treaty Slavery clouds issue Tyler supports annexation Calhoun becomes Sec. of State Annexation defeated

48 The Election of 1844 Clay and Van Buren try to avoid issue of Texas annexation Democrats turn to James K. Polk Strong supporter of annexation “Dark horse” Texan annexation approved in February 1844 Texas statehood in December 1845 “that the re-occupation of Oregon and the re-annexation of Texas at the earliest practicable period are great American measures.” Democratic Party Platform

49 JAMES K. POLK Lacking charm, Polk bored even his friends, but few presidents could match his record of acquiring land for the United States. p. 382

50 MAP 13.3 THE ELECTION OF 1844 Map 13-3, p. 383

51 Manifest Destiny, 1845 “(the American claim to new territory)…is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federative self government entrusted to us. It is the right such as that of the tree to the space of air and earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth.” -John O’Sullivan, Democratic editor (1845)

52 Polk and Oregon Polk offers 49th parallel for border between US and British Canada British rejected compromise Polk re-asserted American claim to all of Oregon Loose talk of war “54°40′ or fight” Neither side wanted war Treaty approving 49th parallel June 1846


54 MAP 13.4 OREGON BOUNDARY DISPUTE Although demanding that Britain cede the entire Oregon Territory south of 54°40’, the United States settled for a compromise at the forty-ninth parallel. Map 13-4, p. 386

55 The Mexican-American War and its Aftermath, 1846-1848
BATTLE OF BUENA VISTA On February 23, 1847 an American army led by Major General Zachary Taylor defeated a larger Mexican force under Antonio López de Santa Anna. Lt. Col. Henry Clay, Jr., the son of Henry Clay, was killed in the battle. The battle was Taylor’s last. He returned to the U.S. to pursue the political career that led him to the presidency.

56 The Origins of the Mexican-American War
Mexican government fails to pay $2 million to US citizens Conflict over Texas boundary Mexico claimed Nueces River Texans/US claimed Rio Grande Polk sent small army to Texas Ward off possible Mexican invasion Under command of Gen. Zachary Taylor

57 The Mexican-American War
Polk sends John Sidell to purchase disputed territories Mexicans reject offer Polk send army from Nueces R. to Rio Grande Mexican troops cross Rio Grande “War exists by the act of Mexico herself.”-Polk War declared May 13, 1846

58 American success Taylor captures Monterrey (Sep. 1846)
Garrison allowed to evacuate w/o pursuit Battle of Buena Vista Polk fears Taylor not up to task of advance on Mexico City Feared Taylor as political rival Offensives against Mexico COL Stephen W. Kearney captured Santa Fe No opposition John C. Frémont and navy capture California John C. Frémont Was Found Guilty Of Mutiny January 31, What happens when two governors are appointed for one territory? In Major John C. Frémont's case, he was given a court-martial. Major John C. Frémont, admired for his map-making expeditions to the West, was court-martialed on the grounds of mutiny and disobeying orders on January 31, Frémont was appointed governor of California in 1847 in recognition of his role in the Mexican war ( ). California had recently been ceded to the United States by Mexico following that war. General Stephen Kearny, however, was sent by the federal government to govern the state. Tension arose between Kearny and Frémont over who had governing authority. In August 1847, Kearny ordered Frémont arrested and charged with insubordination. Frémont was found guilty by a court-martial and subjected to penalties, including removal from the army. Although this decision was reversed by President James K. Polk, Frémont chose to resign his military commission. John C. Frémont Was Found Guilty Of Mutiny January 31, In spite of this episode, Frémont remained popular with the American public. He and his wife, Jesse Benton Frémont, stayed in California. During the gold rush, Frémont became a multimillionaire. In 1850 he was elected as one of California's first senators. Frémont had established a reputation as an outspoken abolitionist, speaking out against slavery. The Republican Party nominated Frémont as its first presidential candidate in 1856 and wanted him to run again in He campaigned as the "Pathfinder" who would lead the country out of the shame of slavery. Although he never became president, Frémont did not give up his efforts to free the slaves.

59 The Battle of Buena Vista (La Angostura) was the climax of a campaign by Santa Anna to destroy Taylor's army in northern Mexico. During the campaign Santa Anna lost half his troops due to desertion, the difficult march and battle casualties. Despite the tremendous loss, Santa Anna was able to rebuild his army to engage General Scott as he advanced from Vera Cruz. Battle of Buena Vista (1847) The Battle of Buena Vista February 23, On February 23, 1847, 14,000 Mexican troops charged General Zachary Taylor's small command of soldiers. Using heavy artillery, the general's 5,000 men turned back the Mexican army led by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. By nightfall, the Mexican army retreated, ending the Battle of Buena Vista, but not the Mexican-American War. The Battle of Buena Vista was fought near Monterrey in northern Mexico. The American war with Mexico was not for independence or for political reasons but to obtain more land. General Taylor was just the man to fight that sort of war.

60 The Mexican War broke out between the U. S. and Mexico in May 1846
The Mexican War broke out between the U.S. and Mexico in May Colonel Stephen Watts Kearney was ordered to lead his command from Fort Leavenworth to capture New Mexico and California from Mexico. Kearney’s force was supposed to protect the Americans in Santa Fe. The force rode out in June 1846 with 1,658 men. They traveled the Santa Fe trail via Bent’s Fort. There, Thomas “Broken Hand” FitzPatrick warned Kearney that General Manuel Armijo was preparing soldiers in Santa Fe. The governor had also issued a call to arms to the citizens of New Mexico. So Kearney rested his men awhile at the fort. Kearney wrote a note that he would hand out to natives along the way. The message stated that the U.S. Army would leave them alone and protect their rights as long as they didn’t interfere or help Mexico in any way. If they did they would be considered enemies of the U.S. and would be treated as such. On August 2, 1846, they left Bent’s Fort and started toward Raton Pass, with FitzPatrick as scout. They received daily reports of the unrest in New Mexico and of the large forces of Mexicans and Indians being gathered to meet them. On August 15, he arrived at the small town of Las Vegas, New Mexico. No one resisted and the leading villagers swore allegiance to the U.S. The same thing happened at the village of San Miguel. They proceeded on to Apache Canyon, where rumors said a large force of Mexicans would be waiting for them. However, no one was there. What no one but Kearney and a few others realized, was that an advance group had gone on to convince Armijo to surrender peacefully. The governor agreed to this but felt he had to make a show of resistance so that he didn’t lose face in front of his own people. The U.S. Army marched on to Santa Fe on August 18. The next day, Lt. Governor Juan Bautista Vigil y Alarid pledged allegiance to the U.S. On the 20th, leaders of several nearby pueblos did the same thing. Kearney successful captured New Mexico without firing a gunshot.

At dawn on June 14, 1846, thirty-three heavily-armed Americans gathered at the fortified adobe home of General Mariano Vallejo, on the north side of Sonoma's Plaza. These men -- some from the Grigsby-Ide party of settlers, some mountain men and explorers, but all displeased with Mexican rule -- pounded on the adobe door and loudly demanded the General come out and surrender the little fortress to them. Vallejo quickly donned his dress uniform, then opened the door and invited three representatives of the group in for breakfast and wine. The General's military bearing and immaculate uniform must have contrasted starkly with the clothing of his "visitors." Some of the Americans wore buckskins, others wore their work clothes, still others wore only what rags they had picked up or made during their travels. Robert Semple, a member of the group, later noted in his memoirs that the party "was as rough a looking set of men as one could imagine." Because Vallejo realized that Mexican rule was inadequate to manage an area as large and rich as California, he had been hoping the United States would annex the region. He told the Americans that morning to consider him one of them. The group was wary; they respectfully informed him he was under arrest and sent him to Sutter's Fort for safeguarding. Vallejo would eventually return to Sonoma after the U.S. took control of California. He would go on to serve as a delegate to the California Constitutional Convention, and later as a State Senator. Having won such a surprising and effortless victory, the Americans, (now twenty-four strong), were at a temporary loss. Some suggested looting the adobe, which was also an arsenal, but William Ide made an impassioned plea for restraint, "Choose ye this day what you will be! We are robbers, or we must be conquerors!" To legitimize their conquest, the rebels decided to raise a new flag over the plaza. By most accounts, the making of this flag was overseen by William L. Todd, a nephew of Mary Todd Lincoln, wife of the future president. A California woman donated a rectangular piece of very light brown muslin. The wife of John Sears, one of the Grigsby-Ide party, tore a four-inch wide strip from a red petticoat and sewed it to the muslin, making a stripe along the bottom reminiscent of the stripes on the American flag. Todd then drew a star in the upper left corner (some say in solidarity with Texas, then also fighting a war with Mexico) and a crude rendition of a grizzly bear next to it, using for both a brownish mixture of brick dust, linseed oil, and Venetian Red paint. The words CALIFORNIA REPUBLIC were written in black in the middle, to the right of the star. Why a grizzly bear? Some historians say the choice was made to enrage and intimidate the Californios, who feared the grizzly more than any other predator. Others accounts say the mountain men favored the grizzly because it was the fiercest and most determined fighter in the animal kingdom. Whatever the reasons behind its choosing, the grizzly quickly became the symbol of the new Republic -- also known, then, as the Bear Flag Republic. The grizzly remains the symbol of California to this day. In his memoirs, the Recuerdos (Recollections), General Vallejo calls the flag's design "strange" and says "the bear looked more like a pig than a bear." No one is sure exactly what the original Bear Flag looked like, as it was destroyed in thee San Francisco Earthquake and Fire of While there are extensive contemporary descriptions of flags of that period, many differ with each other as to the actual designs. The Bear Flag was adopted as the official flag of California in The current design is the result of several makeovers, the last by prominent California historian and artist Donald Kelley in 1953.

62 Advance toward Mexico City
Mexico refused to concede Landing at Vera Cruz Commanded by Gen. Winfield Scott Only 14,000 men Advanced 260 mi. to Mexico City Never lost a battle Few American casualties


64 MAP 13.5 MAJOR BATTLES OF THE MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR The Mexican War’s decisive campaign began with General Winfield Scott’s capture of Vera Cruz and ended with his conquest of Mexico City. Map 13-5, p. 390

65 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mexico wants to negotiate peace treaty Polk wanted war over quickly Treaty agreed upon (Feb. 2, 1848) California and New Mexico ceded to U.S. Rio Grande acknowledged as boundary U.S. assumes financial claims of new citizens Paid Mexico $15 million Senate approved treaty 38 to 14


67 The War’s Effect on Sectional Conflict
Polk saw Missouri Compromise as permanent Many Northerners opposed slavery’s expansion of slavery


69 The Wilmot Proviso Proposal to ban slavery from territory of Mexican Cession Passed House Stopped in Senate


71 The Election of 1848 Polk declined to run again Democrats Whigs
Lewis Cass Whigs Zachary Taylor Hero of Mexican War No political experience Free Soil Party created Supported Wilmot Proviso Martin Van Buren Cass-a dull, aging party regular from MI


“UNION” WOODCUT, BY THOMAS W. STRONG, 1848 This 1848 campaign poster for Zachary Taylor reminded Americans of his military victories, unmilitary bearing (note the civilian dress and straw hat), and deliberately vague promises. As president, Taylor finally took a stand on the issue of slavery in the Mexican cession, but his position angered the South. p. 393


75 California Gold Rush Gold mania California prohibited slavery
Hundreds of thousands flock to CA 14,000 in to 220,000 in 1852 “Forty-niners” Chinese SF depopulated “Nothing but the introduction of insane asylums can effect a cure.” California prohibited slavery Earlier Indian slavery and “hunting” Applied for statehood (Dec. 1849)


77 p. 394

78 Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict, 1840-1848
AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2011

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