3 Fitness, Exercise, or Activity? Fitness: A set of attributes that people have or achieve relating to their ability to perform physical activity (USDHHS, 1996)Exercise: Leisure time physical activity conducted with the intention of developing physical fitness.Physical Activity: Bodily movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle and that substantially increases energy expenditure (USDHHS, 1996)
4 Are Today’s Youth Physically Fit? No, if you listen to many teachersNo, if you listen to many parents who remember how fit they were as youthNo, if you listen to the least active group (adults) label the most active group (youth)Yes, if you look at research data
5 U.S. Fitness Testing Data Administered in 1958, 1965, 1975, 1985Sampled entire U.S.Up to 20,000 youngsters testedConducted by the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and SportsEvaluated youngsters using the PCPFS physical fitness test
6 Results of U.S. Fitness Testing Since 1958, no decreases in fitness scores have been identified (Corbin & Pangrazi, 1992)Test items in each of the four national tests were the pull-up and flexed arm hang.Boys and girls pass rates improvedGirls: 50% in 1958 and 53% in 1985Boys: 55% in 1958 and 73% in 1985
7 Presidential Award Fitness Test Results To earn the Presidential Award, youngsters must pass test items at the 85%ileIf youngsters didn’t meet 85th percentile on all tests, youngsters were labeled unfitLess than one tenth of one percent of students were able to pass all the tests (Corbin & Pangrazi, 1992)Shows that a battery of tests will always fail the majority of people
8 Why Little Change in Fitness levels? Elementary school youth show little physiological response to training (Payne & Morrow, 1993)Fitness is strongly influenced by genetics (Bouchard, 1993)Youngsters may be at a satisfactory fitness level because they are more active than any other age group
9 Fitness is Controlled by Many External Factors Physical performance is controlled by many factors:Maturation - age differences of 3 months impact performance scoresNutritionGenetic PredispositionTrainability
11 Mass Prescription Assumes all people need the same workload Assumes one fitness battery measures many different sizes and shapes of peopleAssumes we know the correct workload for all of our studentsTakes away exercise independence – the motivation to keep active
12 Is Fitness the Right Goal for Inactive Youth? Fitness is a product that many can’t reach, no matter how hard they try – so they quit tryingSome people are non-responders to fitness activitiesMany of the tests are not appropriate for obese youngsters
13 Obese Youth & Fitness – U.S. Obesity is rapidly increasing among youth in the U.S.Failure on a fitness test discourages obese youth – goals are unrealistic for themHeavy emphasis on fitness has not reduced obesity among youth – It has tripled nationally in the last 20+ years
14 Why Lifestyle Activity? Inactive people have twice the risk of developing heart diseaseInactivity is a primary risk factor for heart disease (so are smoking, high blood pressure, and high cholesterolReduces risk of cancer and diabetesImproves posture and reduces lower back painIs as effective as psychotherapy for treating depression
15 Physical Activity: Youth & Adults Differ Adults participate in low volume - high intensity activity (fitness-based activities)Youth participate in high volume - low intensity activity (movement-based activities)Youth don’t like extended bouts of high intensity activity (particularly inactive youth)Youth naturally move in high-low intensity activity patterns (may stimulate growth, Bailey, et.al., 1995)
16 Activity Is for All Students Regular activity for youth increases the probability of an active adult lifestyle (Raitakari, et al., 1994; Telama, et al., 1997)Youth who are active at 3 or 4 years of age, are more active as adults (Pate, et al., 1996)Moderate activity offers lifetime benefitsActivity helps those who need it most - unskilled and obese youth
17 Our Focus: Fitness or Activity? When youth fail fitness tests, they are labeled as unfit; being identified as inactive is less derogatoryFitness is controlled genetically; activity is for all students regardless of abilityFitness is comparative; activity is individual and personalFitness is short term; activity is long term
18 Our Focus: Fitness or Activity? Activity can be monitored; fitness testing is difficult and inaccurateActivity can be done outside of physical education classesActivity needs to be valued as much as intense exercise or sport related activitiesActivity is a lifetime activity
19 What is Lifestyle Activity? Moderate, intermittent, and success orientedAll activity is valuedBalance of strength, flexibility, and aerobic activitiesAssures expenditure of 6 to 8 kcal/kg/dayIncorporates everyday activities, i.e., walking, riding bike, etc.
20 U.S., Sweden, and Australia Youth Activity Study Data on school age youth in each countryPedometer (Yamax 2000) step counts and BMIData gathered using the same protocolData gathered during the fall season in each country
21 Number of Participants MalesFemalesAustralia281285U.S.325386Sweden461440
25 Step Counts by Age & Country Males – Means for Most Active (MA) and Least Active (LA) Tertiles
26 BMI (kg/m2) by Age & Country Female Means for Most (MA) and Least Active (LA) Tertiles
27 BMI by Age & Country Male Means for Most (MA) and Least Active (LA) Tertiles
28 Stepping Out!Pedometers are a reasonably priced way to evaluate physical activity objectively and be accountable.They measure steps; something every student can accomplish.With youth, they are more accurate than recall inventories of activity.
29 Summary Heaviest tertile of boys and girls get much heavier with age. Lean youth show smaller increases in BMI with age.Active boys stay active while inactive boys become less activeActive and inactive girls maintain their initial activity level
30 Thank you, My Australian colleagues… For letting me share with youFor caring about youthFor your warm and caring spirit
31 Pedometers - Validity & Reliability Eston, Rowlands, & Ingledew, 1998Regression analysis- Tritrac R2 = Heart Rate R2 = .638- Pedometer R2 = WAM (CSA) R2 = .609Had .921 correlation with VO2 during unregulated play activitiesKilanowski, Consalvi, & Epstein, 1999Had high correlations with the Tritrac and direct observation measures during recreational activities (.98 & .97, respectively)
32 Advantages & Limitations Unobtrusive & convenient.Cost effective - $20 for one, $11 to $15 depending on quantity purchased.Measures movement.Limitations.Unable to measure intensity, duration, or frequency.Unable to store information other than total counts.
33 Ways to Use Pedometers in Schools Teacher and class members wear pedometer during school day.Accumulated steps are discussed each day for 5 days.Goals are set for all students.Goals are set in a healthy zone format (similar to Fitnessgram standards).
34 Ways to Use Pedometers in Schools Youngsters are asked to monitor one of his parents or significant adult for one day.Handout sent home discussing pedometers and the 10,000 step criteria for adults.Results are discussed by students in class.Creates parental interest in regular physical activity.
35 Ways to Use Pedometers in Schools Students wear pedometers for a 24 hour period to check their free time activity.Comparison of student data to parent’s data.Goals set for students based on baseline data gathered by each student.
36 Ways to Use Pedometers in Schools Students chart their activity as a class project.Goals are set for the class-at-large, i.e., a walk across Arizona or the U.S.Based on the assumption that 2500 steps equals a mile.
37 Ways to Use Pedometers in Schools Students wear pedometers and time how long it takes them to walk a certain number of steps.For example, for adults, a 30-minute walk is comparable to 4,000 steps.Determine time for different activities.Students then set their goals in terms of minutes (meet the P.L.A.Y. standards.
38 Ways to Use Pedometers in Schools Students calculate caloric expenditure based on the number of steps taken during a 24 hour period.Convert how many extra calories they would have to burn to lose one pound of weight in one month.Compare how many calories are consumed when eating candy, pastries, and other high calorie foods.
39 Ways to Use Pedometers in Schools Compare different types of physical activity.Use a set amount of time (30 minutes) in different activities and see how many steps are accumulated.For example, taking a walk, playing soccer, playing baseball, doing chores around the house.Make a chart showing the activity levels of selected activities.
40 Ways to Use Pedometers in Schools Chart and evaluate activity data using a spreadsheet.Students can input their data in the computer lab and then compare different times and distances.Complete a one-week log of steps accumulated each day. Compute the average daily count and see if they are adequate amounts of activity on a daily basis.
41 Understanding the Limitations of Pedometers Rowlands, Eston & Ingledew, 1997.When taking into consideration the intermittent activity patterns of youth and the recent emphasis on promoting total physical activity as opposed to focusing on intensity, duration and frequency these limitations seem to be acceptable.Pedometers give a total count that can be evaluated for each child based on normal patterns of activity in the population.
42 Research Questions10,000 steps per day is recommended dosage for adults, therefore…What is recommended dosage for youth as they mature? Parents/teachers would have data for assuring adequate activity in youthHow does BMI impact activity level?How does self-esteem impact activity level?