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AP US Exam Review Unit 1: The Colonial Era

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Presentation on theme: "AP US Exam Review Unit 1: The Colonial Era"— Presentation transcript:

1 AP US Exam Review Unit 1: The Colonial Era
Major Themes Exploration and Interaction with Native-Americans Spanish, English and French settlements – similarities and differences English Colonies – similarities and differences English colonies – democratic elements

2 New World Beginnings Nomadic Asians Bering Land Bridge
Connected Eurasia w/North America-present-day Bering Sea, between Siberia and Alaska. Bridge exposed during Ice Age (~35,000 yrs ago) Asian hunters followed migratory herds of game -first known humans to arrive in America

3 Causes of European Exploration
Improvements in technology, religious conflict (Catholics in Spain, Prot. Revolution in Europe), expanding trade, and rise of nation- states

4 Crusades- Exploration grew out of fierce competition
Crusaders started trading when they acquired a taste for Asian & African goods like silk, medicine, spices, and perfume Technology – compass, sturdier vessels, printing press Portuguese and Spanish went looking for a route to Asia Renaissance - Nurtured ambitious spirit of optimism & adventure around the 14th century

5 American Indians Central and South America – Maya, Aztec, Inca – trade, large cities, advanced technology Most natives in North America – semi-permanent – hunting and farming - MAIZE Some nomadic – Plains – hunt buffalo Larger – Pueblo in SW – multi-storied, irrigation, uprising Iroquois in NY – “democratic” Confederacy

6 Spanish and Columbus 1492 – purpose of voyage?
Interactions with Natives Legacy? - Columbian Exchange Hero or Villain? The lack of unity between tribes due to various cultural/ political and language differences caused fighting between groups and left them susceptible to European invaders.

7 Spanish Explorations and conquest
1. Conquistadors – Central and South America, Southwest and West Coast of North America (Texas, California) 2. 3 Gs – what are they? Missions, encomienda system, mestizos, DISEASE 3. Explorers –Balboa (Panama/ Pacific), Ponce De Leon (Fl. St. Augustine), Magellan (tip of S. America), de Soto (Mississippi), Cortez (Aztec), Pizarro (Inca) – Treaty of Tordesillas

8 The Conquest of Mexico Cortez and the fall of the Aztec Empire – What happened? 1519 and the story of Quetzalcoatl The fate of Montezuma La Noche Triste, 1521 Guns, Germs, and Steel A “New” Mexico – cultural diffusion, relations with natives, mestizos

9 The Spread of Spanish America
St. Augustine, Florida – fortress built to protect the sea lanes to the Caribbean, oldest continually inhabited European settlement in the future US Roman Catholic missions – California and SW Pope’s Rebellion – Pueblo rebels destroyed every Catholic Church in province and killed priests and settlers, rebuilt religious chamber on ruins of Spanish plaza – just like? Why did they do this? Justified?

10 French Claims Fur trade, “good” relations with Native people Settled in Canadian region Explorers – Verrazano (NY), Cartier (St. Lawrence), Champlain (Quebec – first French settlement)

11 Spanish and French Settlements
Long term influences? Spanish – settled central and South America, conquistadors enslaved Native population and attempted to erase their culture, sometimes married Native people, exported gold to Spain, spread Catholicism and disease, new class system emerged French – settled Canadian region, fur trade

12 Dutch Claims Henry Hudson sought the Northwest Passage
Sailed “Hudson” River Dutch claimed New Amsterdam (later NY) – private joint-stock company (Dutch West India Company) took control of region for ECONOMIC GAIN!

13 English Claims Reasons for migration
1. Profits (#1) 2. Religious Freedom 3. Political reasons 4. Enclosure movement/ unemployment Elizabeth I - promoted exploration, sent Sir Walter Raleigh to explore the “New World” = Roanoke Island - (1587) – NC – first colony - disappeared? Tree – CROATOAN??

14 Early English Settlements
(1607) - Jamestown, Virginia– First permanent English Settlement – land at mouth of Chesapeake Bay, easy to defend but swampy, about 100 MEN (40 died on voyage) Virginia Company (Joint-Stock Company)-Joint-stock companies enabled a large number of investors to pool their money and finance trips to America – sought gold Charter - Guaranteed to colonists the same rights as Englishmen - this provision was incorporated into future colonists’ documents

15 Colonial Era – Jamestown, Virginia
Early problems- disease, salt poisoning, starving time (1609 – 1610), cannibalism John Smith – imposed martial law – “He who will not work shall not eat” Settlement aided by the Powhatan Confederacy John Rolfe and Pocahontas – married 1614 Tobacco 1644 – Powhatan Confederacy destroyed by English

16 Growing Political Power Virginia’s House of Burgesses—1619
First law making body- guaranteed rights to citizens, representative government, control over finances, militia High death rates ensured rapid turnover of members King James was concerned about the law making body and tobacco, became a royal colony in (He hated tobacco)

17 Southern Colonies Tobacco promoted the use of the plantation system - Need for cheap, abundant labor. Indentured Servants -5-7 years. Promised “freedom dues” [land, £] Forbidden to marry. : only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts! Head-right System: Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid. First Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619. Their status was not clear  perhaps slaves, perhaps indentured servants. Slavery not that important until the end of the 17c

18 Origins of Slavery Dutch traders 1650 – 400 African laborers in Va
1660s – Va House of Burgesses – discrimination laws and life-long slavery 1750 – ½ Va and 2/3 SC Increased demand due to decreased migration, cheap labor, slave laws Triangle trade – Middle Passage

19 Southern Colonies - Chesapeake
Virginia Bacon’s Rebellion – 1676 – royal Governor (Berkeley) did not help defend backwoods farmers from Native-Americans, Bacon and rebels burned Jamestown revealed social class tensions within the colonies Colonial resistance to royal control Maryland (1632)– Lord Baltimore, proprietary colony (Act of Toleration) – protected Catholics and granted religious freedom to all Christians, later repealed Georgia (1732) – James Oglethorpe, proprietary colony, defensive buffer from Spanish Florida and haven for English debtors

20 New England Plymouth, Massachusetts - 1620
Puritans – wanted to “purify” Church of England Separatists – upset with corruption in the English Church Mayflower Compact – travelers signed and agreed to majority rule Assisted by local Native-Americans including Squanto Less contact with Natives than in south due to plague that had wiped out Natives living in that area King Philip’s War (1675 – 1676) – Wampanoag Indians, ended Native resistance in New England

21 New England – Massachusetts Bay
Established by Congregationalists – “Great Puritan Migration” – led by John Winthrop – The “City upon a Hill”, covenant with God Many who settled in New England – escaped religious persecution – tolerant? Roger Williams – banished, went to RI Anne Hutchinson – banished, antinomianism Salem Witch Trials (1692)

22 First Great Awakening 1730s – 1740s George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards – attempted to bring back religious fervor, preached emotionalism and spirituality, response to the rationalism of the Enlightenment

23 Chesapeake vs. New England
immigrants often single males Cash crops, plantation economy Swampy, hot, humid Spread-out farming communities New England -Entire families emigrated to New England -small farms, fishing, lumber -healthier climate, lived longer, larger families -larger towns, lived closer to one another

24 Culture and economy New England – fishing, logging, ship building, rum distillers Middle – Small farms, wheat and corn Southern – plantation owners – rice and indigo

25 Middle Colonies NY – Dutch influence –New Netherlands, large segment of population PA – Penn and The “Holy Experiment”, Quakers – religious freedom and civil liberties, pacifists, fair treatment of Native Americans NJ – land offers, religious freedom and assembly Delaware – created out of Pennsylvania

26 Colonial Society in the Mid-Eighteenth Century
Social Structure – 90% lived on farms 1. Family – Males – unlimited power in household females – divorce rare, limited legal and political rights

27 The American Mind Architecture – (Georgian)
Painting – West and Copley, artists were trained in Europe, portraits Literature – Mainly religious Exceptions - Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanac and Phillis Wheatley (Former slave and poet) Bartram - botanist

28 Political Institutions
1. Plymouth – Mayflower Compact, majority rule, self government, written laws 2. Jamestown – House of Burgesses 3. Massachusetts – all free men, members of Puritan Church 4. limited nature? 5. Zenger case – Freedom of press – criticized royal governor – violated English law – jury acquitted Zenger because he was telling the truth

29 Quick Quiz 1. What was the first permanent English settlement?
2. What colony was founded by Oglethorpe and was considered a “buffer colony’? 3. Identify two Great Awakening ministers. 4. Identify the founder of Rhode Island who was banished by the Puritans. 5. Which colonial court case established freedom of the press?

30 Activity 1. Use two events from the colonial era to describe conflicts that took place in colonial America. 2. Use two events from the colonial era that exhibit the freedom American colonists had. 3. Use two events from the colonial era that show the diversity that existed within the American colonies.

31 Essay Question Compare and Contrast the culture and economy of the southern colonies with that of the New England colonies.

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