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The Cold War Abroad Vs. The United States The Soviet Union.

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1 The Cold War Abroad Vs. The United States The Soviet Union

2 Learning Targets Describe the Iron Curtain, the division in Europe and why this occurred. Predict the impact of the U.S. policy of containment on international affairs. Analyze the situation in Berlin and create a plan to deal with the situation. Evaluate the impact of actions surrounding the Cold War on events in the world.

3 Post World War II Plans • European nations to be democratic,
Yalta Meeting (Feb. 1945): • European nations to be democratic, United Nations created

4 Post World War II Plans • Germany and Berlin divided into 4 zones
Potsdam conference (July 1945): • Germany and Berlin divided into 4 zones (USA, S.U., G.B., France)

5 Iron Curtain Stalin wanted barrier between S.U. and Germany
Satellite states: communist Eastern European nations under Soviet control

6 “From Stettin in the North to Trieste in the south, an iron curtain has descended over Europe.”
Winston Churchill to Americans in Speech


8 Containment Policy U.S. foreign policy to stop the spread of Soviet communism George Kennan – creator of the Containment policy

9 Synthesize: Drawing Symbols
Draw a symbol to represent the Iron Curtain and containment in your notebook next to your notes. Discuss.

10 Think, Pair, Share Predict: How will the United States try to “contain” communism? Evaluate: Do you think the U.S. should have supported the containment policy? Why or why not?

11 Truman Doctrine (1947) Response to communist takeover attempts
in Greece gave economic aid ($) to countries fighting communism $400 million for Greece and Turkey

12 Marshall Plan (1948-1951) Need to rebuild Europe London, England
Dresden, Germany

13 Marshall Plan (1948-1951) economic recovery necessary for world peace,
so give friendly aid ($) West German Advertisement The free train of the Marshall Plan Sec. of State Marshall

14 Marshall Plan $12.5 billion

15 Marshall Plan ( ) S.U. and Eastern countries refuse aid

16 Think, Pair, Share Hypothesize: Why do you think Stalin refused aid from the Marshall Plan?

17 Blockade of West Berlin
What to do???

18 GERMANY West Germany (US, GB, F) East Germany (USSR) BERLIN US, GB, F

19 Situation As a result of the Marshall Plan, West Berlin is enjoying democracy and prosperity. USSR does not want East Berlin to know of western ideas or prosperity. Blockade of all roads, canals and rail lines results! West Berlin only has enough food and coal for a little over a month. What to do???

20 Challenge Western allies (US, GB, F) must get food and supplies to West Berlin East Germany/USSR must try to enforce blockade and prevent supplies from entering West Berlin

21 Rules No physical contact Cannot cross line
West Berliners must stay in their seats

22 Reflection What did each side do? How effective was it? Explain.
What would be a better plan?

23 Berlin Airlift (1948-1949) Berliners left
Soviet zone weak & others prospered, so many Berliners left

24 Berlin Airlift (1948-1949) Stalin blockaded West Berlin to stop this
Soviets closed Berlin’s railway lines, canals, roads. W. Berlin had 36 days of supplies.

25 Berlin Airlift ( ) Allies airlift supplies until blockade ended Lasted 11 months! “Operation Vittles”

26 Every ten minutes a plane took off with supplies for West Berlin.
327 days 277,000 flights 2.5 million tons of supplies

27 NATO (1949) and Warsaw Pact defensive military alliances created
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (U.S. & W.Europe) Soviet Warsaw Pact (S.U. and E. Europe)

28 1949: CHINA Becomes Communist!

29 Nuclear Arms Race 1949--Soviet Union achieves A-bomb & U.S
quadruples defense spending Russian Scientist Kurchatov “Joe -1” Russian A-bomb

30 Nuclear Arms Race 1952--U.S. invents Hydrogen "super" bomb,
Soviet H-Bomb 18 mths. later led to nuclear deterrence (no attack b/c both destroyed) Test on Eniwetok Atoll 100 miles wide 57,000 ft. tall vaporized the island 80 times more powerful than the atomic bomb 2.7 miles at center All is destroyed

31 New Policies President Dwight Eisenhower: Use armed forces vs. nukes
Nikita Khrushchev: “peaceful coexistence” President Eisenhower Nikita Khrushchev

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