4 The Nervous System has TWO Major Divisions. The Central Nervous System (CNS)Brain and spinal cordIntegration and command centerThe Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)Paired spinal and cranial nervesCarries messages to and from the spinal cord and brain
5 The Central Nervous System (CNS) The Central Nervous System (CNS) consist of the Brain and the Spinal Cord.The spinal cord carries messages from the body to the brain, where they are analyzed and interpreted. Response messages are then passed from the brain through the spinal cord and to the rest of the body.Both the brain and the spinal cord are enclosed with bone.
6 Brain One of the most active organs of the human body The brain receives 20% of the blood that is pumped from the heartBrain and spinal cord float in a fluid known as cerebrospinal fluid.This fluid cushions against shock.Major parts of the Brain:Cerebrum (Cerebral Cortex)CerebellumMedulla Oblongata
8 Thalamus – message center between Brain and spinal cord Hypothalamus – controls body temperature, blood pressure, and emotions
9 Cerebral cortex 3 major Functions Sensory areas that receive impulses from sense receptors (Eyes, ears, taste, nose, pain, pressure, heat/cold, touch)Motor areas that start impulses that are responsible for all voluntary movementAssociative areas of the brain are responsible for memory, learning and thoughtThe cerebral cortex has many folds called convolutionsConvolutions – are folds on the brain that increase surface area
11 The Cerebellum Controls all voluntary movements and some involuntary The cerebellum helps with balance, rate of muscle contraction, and the muscles position in relation to gravityAllows for smooth orderly movementAlso plays a roll in sensory perception to maintain balance (inner ear)
13 Medulla OblongataConnect the spinal cord to all other parts of the brainControl involuntary activitiesBreathingHeartbeatBlood flowcoughing
14 Memory Scientist do not know exactly how memories are created 3 types of memoryMomentary – lasts a few minShort-term – Several hoursLong-term – Weeks to years and longerHow memories change from short-term to long-term is unknown
15 THE SPINAL CORD 2 Important Functions Connects the nerves of the peripheral nervous system with the brainControls certain reflexes which are automatic responsesThe spinal cord is continuous with the brain and emerges from an opening at the base of the skull.
16 The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of the neurons NOT Included in the brain and spinal cord. AFFERENT (Sensory) NEURONS - Peripheral Neurons collect information from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints from the body and transmit it TOWARD the CNSEFFERENT (motor) NEURONS. - Peripheral Neurons transmit information (impulses) AWAY from the CNS to effector organs
18 Divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System – This system is responsible for body movements over which the individual has some conscious awareness or voluntary control of skeletal musclesAutonomic Nervous System – This system is responsible for involuntary activities and regulates smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and glands2 divisionsSympatheticParasympathetic
19 THE SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Regulates activities that ARE UNDER CONSCIOUS CONTROL, movement of skeletal muscles.Every time you lift your finger or wiggle your toes, you are using the motor neurons of the Somatic Nervous System.Many nerves within this system are part of reflexes and can act automatically.
20 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Regulates ACTIVITIES THAT ARE AUTOMATIC, OR INVOLUNTARY.The nerves of the Autonomic Nervous System control functions of the body that are NOT UNDER CONSCIOUS CONTROL.MAINTAINING HOMEOSTASIS IN THE FUNCTIONING OF MANY ORGANS OF THE BODY.Examples: heart rate, breathing rate, digestion salivation ect
21 THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IS SUBDIVIDED INTO TWO PARTS:
22 Sympathetic “Fight or Flight” Nervous System The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for sudden stressFor example if you see a robbery taking place.When something frightening happens, the sympathetic nervous system takes overmakes the heart beat fasterdiverts blood to your muscles and chestmakes the pupils dilatecauses the adrenal glands at the top of the kidneys to release adrenaline, to give extra power to the muscles for a quick getaway.This process is known as the body's "fight or flight" response.
23 Parasympathetic “Sit and Digest” nervous system It prepares the body for rest.Slows heart rateIt also helps the digestive tract move along so our bodies can efficiently take in nutrients from the food we eat.Opposite of the sympathetic
24 REFLEXES A reflex is an involuntary response to a STIMULUS. Reflexes are very fast, and Most Reflexes Never Reach the Brain.The reflex arc is an automatic, involuntary reaction to a stimulus. When the doctor taps your knee with the rubber hammer, she/he is testing your reflex (or knee-jerk).
29 Are the squares inside the blue and yellow squares all the same color?
30 Bezold effectThe smaller squares inside the blue and yellow squares are all the same color.They seem different (magenta and orange) because a color is perceived differently depending on its relation to adjacent colors (here blue or yellow depending on the outer square).
34 Some neurons in the brain seem specialized in processing faces Some neurons in the brain seem specialized in processing faces. Faces are usually seen upright. When presented upside down, the brain no longer recognizes a picture of a face as a face but rather as an object. Neurons processing objects are different from those processing faces and not as specialized. As a consequence these neurons do not respond to face distortions as well. This explains why we miss the weird eyes when the face is inverted.
36 Illusory ContourThe baby’s head is on the left, the baby’s feet are against the trunk of the tree on the right. Illusory Contour: a form of visual illusion where contours are perceived without a luminance or color change across the contour
37 How quickly can you say the color of the words below?
39 EXIT Slip (Nervous System) What is the difference between peripheral and central nervous systems?Explain the difference between somatic and autonomic nervous system?What are the two divisions of the PNS?What is the name of the nerve (neuron) that sends a message to the brain?What is the name of the nerve (neuron) that sends back the response message from the brain to the body?