2 Contents Introduction Input Output Storage Environmental and health issuesTest and improve your knowledgeModule Activities
3 IntroductionHardware is all the things on a computer that you can physically touch.ProcessingOutputInput Note how the various hardware components fit into the information processing cycle. We will be focusing on the input, output and storage components in this module.Storage
4 Input is the data and instructions that are given to a computer. What is input?Input is the data and instructions that are given to a computer.ProgramsA set of instructionsloaded into memorywhen activatedCommandsGiven by usere.g. You click on the Font Size commandUser responsesTo a question ‘asked’ by a program
5 InputMouseThe following table indicates the various mouse actions and what they are used for.
6 InputThe keyboardThe keyboard is the most commonly used input device.Shortcut keysF1Esc() <E>() <D>
7 Wireless mouse and keyboard InputWireless mouse and keyboardAdvantages of wireless devices:Less clutterNo cords to get tangledWide range of movementDisadvantages of wireless devices:A wireless adapter has to be attached to the computer to receive signals from the device. All wireless devices need power in order to transmit a signal and so they have to contain some form of battery.Require batteries (to produce the wireless signal)More expensiveSometimes there’s interference with the wireless signalCan easily be removed, stolen quickly and quietly
8 OutputOutput is whatever the computer produces to provide us with the results of its processing.OutputSoft copyHard Copy
9 Output Monitor CRT Monitors LCD Soft copy Flat-panel monitors consume less spaceflicker lessCRT MonitorsWhile all modern monitors are flat-panel (LCD) monitors, there are still some older CRT monitors around. These very large and bulky monitors are fast disappearing and have been replaced with flat-panel monitors.consume less powerenvironmentally friendly
10 Output Monitor Flat panel (LCD) viewing angle Soft copy viewing angle specification.Most monitors have a viewing angle of at least 160 degreesFlat panel screens have a viewing angle specification. This is measured in degrees and indicates how far you can move to the side of the monitor (or up or down) before the image quality you see becomes very poor. Most monitors have a viewing angle of at least 160 degrees.
11 Output Monitor Soft copy Resolution Size Response time LCD screens have a recommended resolutionResolutionSizeThe size of a monitormeasured diagonallyin inchesResponse timeA low specification time for high quality graphics and video
12 Output Printers Hard copy Inkjet printers Laser printers • work like a photo-copier machine• expensive to buy• cheaper to run and more suited to printing large volumes• print faster• black and white and colourlaser printers (more expensive)• spray microscopic dots of ink ontothe paper• cheap to buy• expensive to run• produces good quality colour prints• slightly slower than laser printers
13 Output Printers Hard copy Connecting and using printers Printer InstallationChanging the Default PrinterUsb port
14 You can cancel, pause or restart the printing here OutputPrintersHard copyConnecting and using printersPrinter QueuesYou can cancel, pause or restart the printing here
15 Storage Storage medium (CD) Storage device (CD/DVD-drive) Non-volatile: Storage keeps its contents at all timesStorage medium (CD)Storage device(CD/DVD-drive)Explain the difference between volatile (RAM/memory) and non-volatile (hard drive/etc.)
16 A kilobyte (KB) is 1024 bytes StorageStorage capacities&=1 byteA4A kilobyte (KB) is 1024 bytesA megabyte (MB) is 1024 KBA gigabyte (GB) is 1024 MBA terabyte (TB) is 1024 GB.
17 Storage Hard drives In case: stores all programs and data External/portable: USB connected, gets power from PC
18 StorageFlash disksExternal/portable: USB connected, gets power from PCAppears as another disk on PC
19 StoragePorts on your computerNetwork portsFireWire ports
20 Environmental and health issues Health concernsRSI: Repetitive Strain InjuryExplain term:Ergonomics is the study of people in their work environments. It investigates how to make items ranging from cars to computer devices such as keyboards and mice better suited to the human body in terms of ease of use, our comfort and safety.To prevent RSI:Ergonomically designed keyboards
21 Environmental and health issues Health tips for using computersSit correctlyHeight of your seat and/or tableLighting and ventilation/air circulationMouse and keyboard placementsPrevent eye strainRegular breaks
22 Environmental and health issues Tips on how to practice green computingSwitch off computers and devices you are not usingAvoid the senseless wasting of paperTry and repair or upgrade hardwareDon’t just throw away ink and toner cartridgesRefill and reuse cartridgesElectronic waste (e-waste) Also referred to as e-scrap, this refers to outdated or broken electronic equipment such as computer equipment and cell phones that get dumped. This equipment often contains extremely toxic chemicals and materials. E-waste is often not recycled and is simply dumped in landfills, often in sites in Africa and Asia. E-waste is potentially extremely harmful to the environment and people living near these landfills.
23 Introduction to hardware Health and environmental issues Test and improve your knowledgeOverview of moduleIntroduction to hardwareBasic hardwareInputTypes of inputKeyboard and MouseStorageStorages devices vs. Storage mediaHard disks, flash drivesOutputTypes of outputPrinters and MonitorsPortsUSB Network Firewire VGAHealth and environmental issuesGreen ComputingE -WasteHealth IssuesHealth Tips