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Presentation on theme: "UNIT - VII."— Presentation transcript:



3 Introduction to Final Final Accounts
Finance means Cash, Money, Price, Value and Cost Its relating to Monetary benefit Basically 3 Concepts

4 Introduction to Final Final Accounts
Account – It’s a summarized statement of Debit and Credit Accounting – it’s a process of all types of accounts such as PA, RA & NA Accountancy – its law of accounts.

5 Introduction to Accounting
Accounting is a old concept. It was introduced by Edward Jones in 1795 in the books of “Modern Accounting System”. Accounting is “Method of Identifying, Classifying, Summarizing in a significant manner in terms of Money”.

6 Principles of Accounting
Recording Identifying Classifying Summarizing Balancing Eg. 1. Mr. Ramu Purchased a book of Rs. 150/- from kiran at Koti. 2. Mrs. Aishwarya Sold a Machinery of Rs /- to Bharati by cash.

7 Types of Financial Accounting
Personal Accounts Real Accounts Nominal Accounts

8 Types of Accounting Financial Accounting Management Accounting
Cost Accounting

9 Concepts of Accounting
Money Measurement concept Business Entity concept Going concern concept Cost concept Dual aspect concept Accounting period concept Matching concept Reliasation concept Objective concept Other concepts

10 Conventions of Accounting
Convention of Disclose Convention of Consistency Convention of Conservatism Convention of Materiality

11 Principles of Double Entry system
Personal Accounts Real Accounts Nominal Accounts Debit Credit Debit Credit Debit Credit Receiver Giver What comes in What goes out Exp and Loss Income & Gain

12 Journal When the size of the business firm is big. All the business transections are first recorded in a Rough Book, before entering them in “JOURNAL”. After words these transactions are recorded in a chronological order. After analyzing, classifying these benefits according to the principles of debit & Credit is called “Journal”.

13 Advantages of Accounting
Replacing money Assisting the performance of the business Assessing the financial status of the business Documentary evidence Assisting in realisation of debts. Facilitating & detecting frauds Preventing & detecting frauds Help full to Management

14 Classification of Ledger
Debtors ledger Creditors ledger General ledger Self ledger

15 Types of Subsidiary books
Purchase book Sales book Purchase returns book Sales returns book Cash book Bill receivable book Bills payable book Journal proper

16 Characteristics of Cash book
It can also be treated as a subsidiary book Like ledger, there are the debit and credit columns in cash book Only cash transactions are recorded It always shows debit balance but it never shows the credit balance The balance of cas can be known at any point of time

17 Types of cash transactions
Cash Receipts Cash Payments

18 Types of Cash books Simple cash book Double column cash book
Triple column cash book Petty cash book

19 Trial Balance M.S gosav defined the Trail Balance as “The Trail balance is a statement containing the balances of all ledger accounts., as at any given date, arranged in the form of debit and credit columns placed side by side and prepared with the object of checking the arithmetical accuracy of the ledger postings”.

20 Characteristics of Trial Balance
Basically Trial Balance is a statement or list It contains all the Debit and Credit balances It total debit balances must be equal in aggregate to the total of the credit balances when accounts are balanced at any given time. Trial Balance is the only base for the preparation of final accounts

21 Advantages of Trial balance
Preparation of final accounts will become easy with the preparation of Trail balance When the total balance of debit is equal to the total balance of credit in a trial balance one can confidently rely on the results derived out of such trail balance.

22 Final Accounts Relating to Trading Concern Trading Account
Profit & Loss Account Balance sheet Relating to Manufacturing Firm Manufacturing Account Balance Sheet

23 Importance of Trading Account
We can ascertain Gross Profit / Gross Loss We can observe the changes in direct expenses. We can calculate the cost of production We can establish the relation b/w the costs and revenues We can analyze the trend in sales We can decide the earning capacity of the firm

24 Importance of Profit & Loss Account
The main purpose of preparing the Profit & Loss account is to ascertain Net profit / Net Loss of the firm It is also useful to establish a relationship b/w the sales and the total indirect expenses through percentages. Its relating to the expenses and Incomes of the firm

25 Balance Sheet “Balance Sheet is a statement prepared on a particular date of reflect the financial position of the firm with all assets and liabilities of the firm”.

26 Types of Balance Sheet Rigidity preference order
Liquidity preference order

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