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ECE 353 Introduction to Microprocessor Systems

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1 ECE 353 Introduction to Microprocessor Systems
Week 9 Michael G. Morrow, P.E.

2 Topics Memory technologies
Organization and operation of typical SRAM, EPROM and flash memory devices Memory subsystem design Address decoder implementation SRAM timing characteristics

3 Memory Terminology How could we classify memory devices?
Read-Only Memory (ROM) In common usage, ROM is memory that is nonvolatile. Random-Access Memory (RAM) The time required to access any memory location is the same – i.e. it does not need to be accessed in a specific order. In common usage, RAM is memory that can be read or written with equal ease.

4 Memory Technologies ROM (non-volatile) RAM (volatile)
Masked ROM Field programmable EPROM OTP PROM (fuse or EPROM) Electrically erasable EEPROM (or E2PROM) Flash memory RAM (volatile) SRAM DRAM Pseudo-SRAM Emerging memory technologies

5 Memory Organization Logical organization Physical organization
Organization as seen looking at the device from the outside Linear array of registers (memory locations) Width – number of bits in each memory location Depth – number of memory locations Usually written as depth x width (i.e. 32k x 8) Physical organization Different physical organizations can be used to implement the same logical organization Physical organization affects performance and cost

6 SRAM Interfaces RAM with 3 control inputs RAM with 2 control inputs
/CS, /OE, /WE Read Write aka “Intel style” RAM with 2 control inputs E (CS), R/W (or /WE) aka “Motorola style”

7 SRAM Organization Logical Organization Physical Organization NV-SRAM
Typically 1, 4 , 8 or 16 bit widths Physical Organization Rectangular bit array Two-level decoding (row and column) Characteristic delays and timing requirements are specified in memory devices datasheet (Example) NV-SRAM Uses an alternate power source to maintain SRAM when system power is off Requires logic to switch power sources and prevent spurious writes during power-up/power-down

8 EPROM Electrically programmable, non-volatile
Requires UV light to erase Quartz window in package Floating polysilicon gate avalanche injection MOS transistor (FAMOS) Operation Programmer loads device out-of-circuit OTP EPROMs eliminate quartz window EEPROMs are electrically erasable Byte-erasable / writeable Low-density JEDEC Packages

9 Flash Memory Actually Flash EEPROM, commonly just called flash memory
Characteristics Technologies Endurance Blocking, programming and erasing Applications ROM replacement GP NV-RAM Solid-state disk (flash-disk) Example

10 Memory Subsystem Design
Memory banks Increasing memory width Increasing memory depth Increasing memory width and depth Address decoding Exhaustive (full) vs. partial (reduced) decoding Boundaries If address is a 2n boundary, then what is the result of (address AND (2n-1))? We normally decode memory devices to be aligned on boundaries at least as large as they are

11 Memory Architectures Wide (n-byte) buses Bus resizing
Addressing effects Byte transfer support Data lanes Control signals Bus resizing Static Configurable Dynamic

12 Memory Subsystems Review
What is the purpose of an address decoder circuit, and where does its output usually get connected? What is exhaustive decoding, and what effects does it have? What is partial decoding, and what effects does it have?

13 SRAM Timing Characteristics
An SRAM device has key timing parameters specified for the read cycle. tAA – address access time tRDHA – data valid after address changes tACS – chip select access time tRHCS – data valid after chip select tCHZ – time until device floats bus tOE – output enable access time tOHZ – time until device floats bus tRC – read cycle time The write cycle has a complementary set of specifications.

14 7C1046 SRAM

15 27C512 EPROM

16 HM624100HC SRAM

17 SRAM Timing Compatibility
In order to ensure that we will be able to reliably read and write the memory device, we need to ensure that the processor system bus interface is compatible with the memory device. This is accomplished by analyzing the timing for all relevant parameters of both the processor and memory, and ensuring that the operations can be completed reliably.

18 Wrapping Up Quiz #2 will be held Wednesday 11/5/2007 at 7:15-8:30pm in 2317EH Covers educational objectives for modules 3 and 4 (weeks 5 through 8) Single 3x5 card with original handwritten notes No calculators Instruction set references and any needed datasheets will be provided Reading for next week Supplement #3, review chapter 9 in text



21 JEDEC Standard Packages

22 Flash Blocks

23 Flash Memory Application: Disk-on-Key
Up to 64GB nonvolatile storage And climbing No battery or power supply Specifications: Data retention up to 10 years Erase cycles: 1,000,000 times Shock resistance: 1000 G (maximum)

24 RAM Read – 3 control signals

25 RAM Write – 3 control signals

26 Increasing Memory Depth

27 Increasing Memory Width

28 Increasing Memory Depth & Width

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