Presentation on theme: "SW 8100: Social Work with Diverse Populations"— Presentation transcript:
1 SW 8100: Social Work with Diverse Populations Spring 2008Dr. Anne TellettDr. Priscilla A. Day
2 Definition“culture is learned, shared, and transmitted values, beliefs, norms, and life ways of a group which are generally transmitted intergenerationally and influence one’s thinking and action” (Leininger,1998)in (Hogan, 2007, p.15)
3 CultureIs made up of meaning systems, such as beliefs, values, and ways of thinking and viewing the worldThese are learned through social interactions with family and the communityThey are largely invisible, unrecognized and not discussed
4 Culture is multi-layered It exists at individual, group and societal level:individual assumptions, values, beliefs shaped by family and social groupgroup membership based on ethnicity, gender, age, class, race, religion, sexual orientation, region of the country, etc.societal institutions that shape our world - schools, workplaces, the media, government
5 Complex process“Intercultural learning is never linear or orderly. It is a process that occurs in complex ways with increasing levels of cultural knowledge” ( Nakanishi & Ritter, 1992)
6 Personal Barriers to Effective Communication LanguageNonverbal communicationPreconceptions, stereotypes, and discriminationJudgmentsStress
7 Personal ProcessEveryone goes through a process of cultural identity development.This process looks different for people of color and white people.
8 What is privilege?Society gives privilege to groups by assigning unearned overadvantage to some groups and unearned underadvantage to others.It gives status and power to members of the groups with privilegeIt has nothing to do with merit or ability.It is systemic.Privilege is similar to a fish being unaware of the water in which it livesSociety gives privilege to groups by assigning unearned over-advantage to some groups and unearned under-advantage to others.-It gives status and power to members of the groups with privilege.-It has nothing to do with merit or ability.-It is systemic.
9 Many kinds of privilege White privilegeHeterosexual privilegeAble-bodied privilegeClass privilegePrivilege based on religionPrivilege based on genderPrivilege based on formal education
10 Denial The pressure to avoid the realization of privilege is great If we face it, we have to give up the myth of meritocracy…if these things are true, this is not such a free country and one’s life is not what one makes itMany doors are open for certain people through no virtues of their own
11 How can you address privilege? Do not assume that all differences are the sameAcknowledge and validate everyone’s experienceAvoid assumptionsListen with compassionCreate safety and room for everyoneSpeak from your experience, not generalities(Continued on next slide…)
12 “Whites are taught to think of their lives as morally neutral, normative, and average, and also ideal, so that when we work to benefit others, this is seen as work that will allow ‘them’ to be like ‘us’” (MacIntosh, 1998).
13 Naming it“To speak of whiteness is, I think, to assign everyone a place in the relations of racism. It is to emphasize that dealing with racism is not merely an option for white people – that, rather, racism shapes white people’s lives and identities in a way that is inseparable from other facets of daily life” (Frankenberg, 1993, p.6).
14 White Racial Identity Development (WRID) –Assumptions (Sue & Sue, 1999) Racism permeates all aspects of lifeWe are all socialized into society - inheriting all the biases, stereotypes and racist attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of the larger societyIndividuals go through an identifiable process as they perceive themselves as racial beingsAll interracial relationships are affected by the stage of racial identity each person is in
15 Minority Racial Identity Development (MRID)-Assumptions (Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, 1993) Anchored in belief that all minority groups experience the common force of oppressionAs a result, all will generate attitudes and behaviors consistent with natural internal struggle to develop strong sense of self-identity and group identity, despite oppressive situations
16 MRID Focus Each stage reflects four kinds of attitudes: Attitudes toward selfAttitudes toward others in the same reference groupAttitudes toward members of other minority groupsAttitudes toward white, majority group
17 Identity Change Stages Stages are integral to learning cultural diversity contentAn identity change also forces one to change personal paradigm ( meaning, beliefs and deep assumptions about reality)
18 Comments on stage theories racial identity development is not linearpeople move back and forth from stage to stage, but when revisiting an earlier stage, it will look different because of new experiencethe concept of recycling through the stages can be seen as a spiral staircase
19 Conformity Stage WRID reliance on stereotypes and societal messages deny discrimination exists, deny own prejudicesethnocentric -little knowledge of other racial groupsMRIDpreference for the values and norms of the dominant cultureDesire to assimilate and acculturateNegative attitudes toward their group and themselves as a racial being
20 Dissonance Stage MRID WRID Often stimulated by a personal race related experience either an influence by someone with strong ethnic pride or a personal experience with racismState of flux and confusionWRIDforced to deal with inconsistencies in societal messagesrealization can result in guilt, shame, anger, and depression
21 Resistance and Immersion MRIDblanket endorsement of one’s own group, it’s values and attitudesrejection of values and norms of dominant groupaccepts racism as a realityguilt over previous “naïve” attitudesvery negative attitudes toward dominant groupWRIDmajor questioning of own and others’ racismawakened, suddenly seeing what has been hiddenanger toward society, family and friends – feel lied toself-hatred as well as guilt for being part of an oppressive system
22 Introspection Stage WRID Introspection and reformulation of what it means to be white, after the swing from unconditional acceptance of white identity to rejection of whitenessFeelings of loss and isolation common – can never truly understand a person of color’s experience, but new awareness also cuts off from other white peopleMRIDComfort and security in own racial identityTurn energy from previous anger to positive exploration of identity issuesViews toward own group are no longer blindly positive and individual differentiation is consideredStill distrust of the “system” but individual variation of white people is recognized
23 Integrative Synergistic Articulation Awareness and Awareness WRIDUnderstand self as a racial beingAware of sociopolitical influences re: racismIncreased commitment toward eradicating oppressionInner sense of security and strength, which is needed to function in society where only marginally acceptedMRIDSense of self-fulfillment re: cultural identityConfident and secureDesire to eliminate all forms of oppressionHigh positive regard toward own group, but not blanket acceptanceSelective appreciation of whites who seek to halt oppression
24 “Differences do not separate us, but refusing to acknowledge them and the role they take in shaping our relationships and institutions keeps us apart. We need to rethink difference – use it as a place to reconstruct our world.” (Audre Lorde)
25 ReferencesHogan, M. (2007). The four skills of cultural diversity competence: A process for understanding and practice. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.Ponterotto, J. and Pederson, P. (1993). Preventing prejudice: A guide for counselors and educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (1999). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). New York: J. Wiley & Sons.