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Discovering useful words and expressions

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2 Discovering useful words and expressions

3 _________ action of defending oneself against an enemy’s attack.
Find the word from the text for each of these meanings. _________ action of defending oneself against an enemy’s attack. _________ might happen or probably will be true. _________ European country that is shaped like a boot. _________ small restaurant provided by a school for its students or by a company for its employees. _________ to be chosen to speak or act in place of someone defence likely Italy canteen represent

4 dash approach association cheek flight
Find the word from the text for each of these meanings. 6. _________ to run or travel somewhere in a great hurry 7 _____________ to come nearer to something or someone from a great distance 8 _______________ group of people organized for a special purpose 9 _________ either side of the face below the eye 10 _________ the act of flying, especially scheduled on a plane dash approach association cheek flight

5 Complete the passage with the words below in their proper forms.
approach cheek contrary curiously dash Jordan misunderstand Joan was sitting in the park. A tall, dark woman _________ her, singing loudly. She looked as if she was from a Middle Eastern country, maybe _______. After a minute, the woman stopped and started hitting her own _________. Joan watched _________, thinking that the woman seemed a little crazy. Suddenly, the woman saw Joan and ____________ over to her. Joan then realized that she had ________________ the woman’s actions – she wasn’t crazy. She was, on the _________, asking for help to kill a bee! approached Jordan cheek curiously dashed misunderstood contrary

6 Use words from the box to complete the paragraph below.
adult crossroads major greeted flight spoken dormitory association Colombia curious presenting Julia was at ________________. She had just graduated from university and was ready to begin life as an Independent ____________. She had already received some great job offers from several ___________ companies and was very excited about the opportunities. While cleaning out her ____________ room on her last day at university, she received an unexpected phone call. The caller _________ crossroads adult major dormitory greeted

7 her in careful English and then introduced himself as
____________ an international _____________. He had met Julie a few weeks ago at a job fair and was impressed with her ____________ English. The only difficulty was that his company was in the country of ___________ . Julie was _____________ to find out more, so after talking with her parents that evening, she booked a _______________ to South America. representing association spoken Colombia curious flight

8 Discovering useful structures

9 Grammar

10 V-ing 形式在句中作定语和状语是本单元的学习重点。
1. 作定语 V-ing 形式可以单独充当名词的前置修饰语, 这时有两种情况。 -ing形式表示 “供作......之用”的意思, 这类作定语的-ing形式过去叫动名词。 A swimming pool = a pool for swimming

11 A sleeping car = a car for sleeping 2) -ing形式表示 “......的” 意思, 过去叫现在分词 A sleeping child working people the rising sun

12 现在分词作定语,当分词单独做定语时,放在所修饰的名词前;如果是分词短语做定语放在名词后。
Eg.In the following years he worked even harder. 在后来的几年中,他学习更努力了。 The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor's father. 正与老师谈话的那个人是我们班长的父亲。

13 现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能,如:in the following years也可用in the years that followed; the man speaking to the teacher可改为the man who is speaking to the teacher.

14 Practice: ____ dogs seldom bite. Bark B. To bark C. Barked D. Barking (2) The wolf spoke in a _____ voice and Mr. Dongguo felt______. frightening; frightened B. frightened; frightened C. frighten; frightening D. frightening; frightening D A

15 (3) It’s pleasure to watch the face of a ____
baby. asleep B. sleep C. sleeping D. slept (4) The ____ buildings showed us that an earthquake was coming. A. shaking B. shook C. shaken D. shake C A

16 现在分词做状语 现在分词在语法功能上相当于动词、形容词和副词。现在分词通常和逻辑主语之间存在主动关系。但要注意它地各种形式变化:
主动形式 被动形式 V-ing being V-ed having V-ed having been V-ed 一般式 完成式

17 E. g. Hearing the bell, the students began to enter the classroom
The building being built now is our new library. 现在正在建造地 这栋楼房室我们地 新图书馆(being built为现在分词的被动形式,表示动作正在进行之中。) Having done the work, he went home. 完成了工作,他就回家了。

18 现在分词作状语 现在分词作状语往往和逻辑主语之间存在主动关系。现在分词作状语,常常用来表示原因、时间、方式、结果、条件、伴随状况等。现在分词一般不用作表目的地状语(通常用不定式表目的地状语)。

19 1)表时间状语 Walking in the street, I came across an old friend of mine. (=When I was walking in the street, I came across an old friend of mine.) While waiting for the bus, he read a copy of China Daily. (=While he waswaiting for the bus,he read a copy of China Daily.)

20 2) 表原因状语 Being ill, he didn’t go to school. (=as he was ill, he didn’t go to school.) 既然你是一个学生,你就应该努力学习。 Being a student, you should study hard. (=Since you are a student, you should study hard.) 由于想到它或许在家,所以我就给他打了电话。 Thinking he might be at home, I called him. (As I thought he might be at home, I called him.)

21 3)表方式、伴随情况地状语 :作伴随状语地分词表示的动作,必须是主语的一个 动作,或是与谓语所表示地动作(或状态)同时发生,或是对谓语表示地动词(或状态)作进一步地补充说明。
E.g. He sat on the sofa, watching TV. (=He sat on the sofa, and watched TV.)

22 他们笑着谈着走进了教室。 __________________ , they went into the classroom. Laughing and talking 他斜靠(lean)着墙站着。 He stood leaning against the wall.(=He stood and leaned against the wall.)

23 4) 表结果 E.g. Her mother died in 1990, leaving her with her younger brother. (=Her mother died in 1990, and left her with her younger brother.) 全国到处在传唱这首歌曲,使它成了一首最受欢迎地歌曲。 The song is sung all over the country,_____________________________ making it the most popular song

24 5)表条件 Using your head, you will find a way. (=If you use your head, you will find a way.) 一直往前走,你就会看到一座白色地房子。 Walking ahead ______________, you will see a white house.

25 (6)与逻辑主语构成独立主格:  I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my heard  我等汽车时,一只鸟落到我头上。  All the tickets having been sold out, they went away disappointedly.  所有的票已经卖光了,他们失望地离开了。  Time permitting, we'll do another two exercises. 如果时间允许,我们将做另两个练习。

26 有时也可用with (without) +名词(代词宾格)+分词形式
With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。 (7)作独立成分:  Judging from(by) his appearance, he must be an actor.  从外表看,他一定是个演员。

27 Attention Please -ing形式作状语时, 它的逻辑主语必须与主句的主语是一致的。 Time permitting, I will pay a visit to the whole city.  (分词的逻辑主语是time , 而句子的主语是I , 两者不构成主谓关系, 所以只能用独立主格结构, 也就是给现在分词补充一个主语。)

28 His nose touches Mr. Cook’s moving hand.
the Japanese the Canadian You see her step back appearing surprised. the Columbian the British lady

29 You see her step back appearing surprised.
= You see her step back and she appears surprised.

30 They also express their feelings using unspoken language.
=They also express their feelings by the way of using unspoken language. His nose touched Mr. Cook’s moving hand. =His nose touched Mr. Cook’s hand which is moving.

31 They are visitors coming from several countries.
= They are visitors who come from several countries. This is an exciting experience. = This is an experience which is exciting.

32 Rewrite the following sentences.
1. When he approached Ms Smith, he touched her shoulder and kissed her. ______ ___________ Ms Smith, he touched her shoulder and kissed her. When approaching 2. The person who is translating the songs can speak seven languages. The person _________ ___ ______can speak seven languages. translating the songs

33 3. The boy standing there is reading a book about body language.
The boy ____ __ ________ there is reading a book about body language. who is standing 4. Because he comes from Jordan, he moves close to ask you a question. _______ _____ Jordan, he moves close to ask you a question. Coming from

34 5. She sat at the desk and did her homework.
doing her homework

35 1. Not ________(know) his address, I couldn’t go to see him yesterday.
Grammar work 语法专练 用所给动词的适当形式填空。 1. Not ________(know) his address, I couldn’t go to see him yesterday. 2. Look out for cars when _______(cross) the street. 3. Not _________________ (invite) to the party, Mary was greatly hurt. knowing crossing having been invited

36 4. He dived into the water, ______ (leave) only his face exposed.
5. When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door, _______ (read) “Sorry to miss you; I will call later.” 6. _______ (take) a deep breath, they dived into the water. 7. ____________ (close) the windows and the door, the students left the room. leaving reading Taking Having closed

37 Grammar quiz 语法小测 1. When _____ different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing many similarities. A. compared B. being compared C. comparing D. having compared C

38 2. Whenever he was asked why he was late for class, he would answer carelessly, always ______ the same thing. A. saying B. said C. to say D. having said A

39 3. There are hundreds of visitors _____ in front of the Art Gallery to have a look at Van Gogh’s paintings. A. waited B. to wait C. waiting D. wait C

40 4. ______ , the more expensive the camera, the better its quality.
A. General speaking B. Speaking general C. Generally speaking D. Speaking generally C

41 5. “You can’t catch me!” Janet shouted, _______ away.
A. run B. running C. to run D. ran B

42 单句改错 1. Having not seen the film, I can’t tell you what I think of it. 2. The men worked for extra hours got an extra pay. 3. Seen from the top of the hill, we find the city more beautiful. 4. Generally speak, facial expressions are helpful communications, too. Not having working Seeing speaking

43 5. “ Can’t you read?” the man said, angrily pointed to the notice on the wall.
6. Knocking at the door before entering, please. 7. European football is played in 80 countries, made it the most popular sport in the world. pointing Knock making

44 Homework Finish exercises on page 29. Finish exercises on pages

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